Secularism and State Policies Toward Religion: The United States, France, and Turkey

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Cambridge University Press, 27.04.2009 - 313 Seiten
Why do secular states pursue different policies toward religion? This book provides a generalizable argument about the impact of ideological struggles on the public policy making process, as well as a state-religion regimes index of 197 countries. More specifically, it analyzes why American state policies are largely tolerant of religion, whereas French and Turkish policies generally prohibit its public visibility, as seen in their bans on Muslim headscarves. In the United States, the dominant ideology is "passive secularism," which requires the state to play a passive role, by allowing public visibility of religion. Dominant ideology in France and Turkey is "assertive secularism," which demands that the state play an assertive role in excluding religion from the public sphere. Passive and assertive secularism became dominant in these cases through certain historical processes, particularly the presence or absence of an ancien régime based on the marriage between monarchy and hegemonic religion during state-building periods.
 

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Inhalt

Introduction
1
Analyzing Secularism
6
The United States
39
Passive Secularism and the Christian Rights Challenge 19812008
41
Religious Diversity and the Evolution of Passive Secularism 17761981
74
France
101
Assertive Secularism and the Multiculturalist Challenge 19892008
103
The War of Two Frances and the Rise of Assertive Secularism 17891989
136
Westernization and the Emergence of Assertive Secularism 18261997
202
Conclusion
236
 StateReligion Regimes Index of 197 Countries
247
 Human Development and Official Religion in 176 Countries
255
 StateReligion Regimes in FortySix Muslim Countries
259
 Turkeys National Security Council Decisions February 28 1997
261
Bibliography
263
Index
307

Turkey
159
Assertive Secularism and the Islamic Challenge 19972008
161

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Über den Autor (2009)

Ahmet T. Kuru is Assistant Professor of Political Science at San Diego State University. He is currently a Postdoctoral Research Scholar at and Assistant Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Toleration, and Religion at SIPA of Columbia University. His dissertation, on which this book is based, received the Aaron Wildavsky Award for the best dissertation from the Religion and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association. He is the author of several articles that have appeared in journals such as World Politics, Comparative Politics, and Political Science Quarterly.

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