Securing the Harvest: Biotechnology, Breeding, and Seed Systems for African Crops
Improved food security, led by increased productivity among Africa s many small-scale farmers, has been the aim of significant national and international effort in recent decades. This book grew out of a two-year exploration conducted by the food security theme of The Rockefeller Foundation focusing on the potential for crop genetic improvement to contribute to food security among rural populations in Africa. It provides a critical assessment of the ways in which recent breakthroughs in biotechnology, participatory plant breeding, and seed systems can be broadly employed in developing and delivering more productive crop varieties in Africa s diverse agricultural environments."
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1 Introduction and Summary
2 The Challenge
3 The Roots of Hunger
4 Breeding Between an Art and a Science
Reaching the Poor in Numbers
II Exploring New Strategies for Improving Africas Food Crops
10 Pearl Millet
Production 1000 t of principal food crops in subSaharan Africa 1997
Per capita production kg per person of principal food crops in subSaharan Africa 1997
adapted African farmers agricultural research agro-ecologies areas Asia banana biotechnology black Sigatoka breeders breeding programmes cassava challenge CIMMYT cowpea crop genetic improvement crop improvement crop species crop varieties cultivars cultivated dissemination downy mildew drought tolerance eastern and southern environments farmers in Africa food crops food security genes genome genotypes germplasm grain grey leaf spot growth harvest hybrid IARCs ICRISAT identified IITA important improved varieties improvement in Africa increased Kenya landraces levels maize production maize streak virus maize varieties major Malawi Mali methods mid-altitude millet molecular Mozambique NARSs national programmes nematodes Nigeria participatory pearl millet personal communication pests and diseases plant breeding population potential priority private seed public sector rates recent regions resistance rice scientists seed companies seed markets seed sector seed systems Sigatoka small-scale farmers sorghum southern Africa strategies streak virus Striga sub-Saharan Africa tissue culture traits transgenic WARDA weevils West Africa yield Zimbabwe