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Ecology of the Sahel
West Africa before Colonialism
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agricultural animals appears Bakel bureaucrats cattle Chad Chapter CILSS Club colonial crops cultivation Dakar dependency Derriennic desert Despite donor drought and famine dry season ecological economic effects elite environment environmental European experts farmers farming fertilizer forest France French Fulani grain groups Guidimaka harvest herders herds herdspeople ibid important increase investment irrigation labor land Livestock Project major Mali Mauritania ment MIFIRMA millet million Moroccan Mourides multinational nations needs niayes Niger River nomads noted OECD organization pastures peanut peasants percent plant political population potential problem production rain rainfall region rice SAED Sahara Sahel Development Program Sahel drought Sahelian Sahelian countries savanna seeds Senegal River Senegalese slaves social soil Soninke sorghum sources Timbuktu tion tons trade traditional Tuaregs United USAID vegetables village Waalo West Africa Western Western Sahara Wolof World Bank zones