Semantic Interpretation and the Resolution of Ambiguity

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Cambridge University Press, Mar 19, 1992 - Computers - 263 pages
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Semantic interpretation and the resolution of ambiguity presents an important advance in computer understanding of natural language. While parsing techniques have been greatly improved in recent years, the approach to semantics has generally improved in recent years, the approach to semantics has generally been ad hoc and had little theoretical basis. Graeme Hirst offers a new, theoretically motivated foundation for conceptual analysis by computer, and shows how this framework facilitates the resolution of lexical and syntactic ambiguities. His approach is interdisciplinary, drawing on research in computational linguistics, artificial intelligence, montague semantics, and cognitive psychology.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 The problems
2
112 Word sense and case slot disambiguation
4
113 Syntactic disambiguation
9
12 Frames
12
13 Artificial intelligence research at Brown University
15
131 The Frail frame language
16
132 The Paragram parser
18
535 Polaroid Words for bound constituents
112
536 Cues unused
113
55 Slot restriction predicates and selectional restrictions
117
56 Psychological reality
118
562 Psychological nonreality
121
563 Marker passing path strength and magic numbers
124
57 Conclusion
125
STRUCTURAL DISAMBIGUATION
129

14 Policy statements
20
SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION
23
Semantic interpretation
25
22 Semantic interpretation and linguistic theory
28
222 Modeltheoretic and truthconditional semantics
29
23 Semantic interpretation and artificial intelligence
33
231 Procedural semantics and Woodss semantic interpreter
34
232 Knowledge semantics
39
233 Objectoriented semantics
41
24 Psycholinguistic research on semantic interpretation
42
25 Qualities desirable in a semantic interpreter
43
The Absity semantic interpreter
44
33 The typing system of Absity
46
Turning meaningful syntax into words
50
35 The semantic rules of Absity
52
36 Implementation details
56
37 Absity as the fulfillment of our dreams
58
38 What Absity cant do yet
59
39 Conclusion
72
LEXICAL DISAMBIGUATION
75
Lexical disambiguation
77
42 Lexical disambiguation research in AI
80
Semantic judgments
81
Disambiguation with frames and associations
82
Word expert parsing
83
43 Psycholinguistic research on lexical disambiguation
84
431 Semantic priming and spreading activation
86
432 Phoneme monitoring and prior choice activation models
87
433 The ordered search hypothesis
90
434 Semantic priming and the allreadings hypothesis
92
435 Conclusion
94
Polaroid Words
96
52 Marker passing
97
521 Marker passing in Frail
98
522 Lexical disambiguation with marker passing
100
523 Constraining marker passing
101
53 Polaroid Words
102
532 How Polaroid Words operate
106
533 An example of Polaroid Words in action
108
534 Recovery from doubt
110
Structural disambiguation
131
622 Gap finding and filling
136
623 Analytical ambiguities
137
624 The interaction between categorial and structural ambiguity
149
625 Structural ambiguity as a closure problem
150
63 Current theories of structural disambiguation
152
632 Structural disambiguation in Marcus parsers
153
633 Ford Bresnan and Kaplans theory of closure
155
634 Structural disambiguation as presupposition minimization
158
64 Conclusion
162
The Semantic Enquiry Desk
164
72 Prepositional phrase attachment
165
722 Determinants of prepositional phrase attachment
166
723 Verb annotations
168
725 Testing for presupposition satisfaction
170
726 Making the attachment decision
172
727 Muffling combinatorial explosions
175
73 Gap finding in relative clauses
177
732 How to find gaps
178
74 Methods for other structural ambiguities
182
742 Relative clause attachment
184
75 Conclusion
186
CONCLUSION
187
Conclusion
189
822 Implicit claims
190
823 Applications of the work
192
831 Semantic interpretation and disambiguation
193
832 Knowledge representation for language understanding
199
834 Lexical disambiguation in text databases
200
Speculations Partially Baked Ideas and Exercises for the Reader
202
92 Semantic formalisms
207
93 Semantic interpretation and discourse pragmatics
209
94 Lexical ambiguity
212
95 Structural ambiguity
215
96 None of the above
220
References
225
Index of names
251
Index of subjects
256
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