Sensors and Sensing in Biology and Engineering

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Friedrich G. Barth, Joseph A.C. Humphrey, Timothy W. Secomb
Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 23, 2003 - Science - 404 pages
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Biological sensors are usually remarkably small, sensitive and efficient. It is highly desirable to design corresponding artificial sensors for scientific, industrial and commercial purposes.This book is designed to fill an urgent need for interdisciplinary exchange between biologists studying sensors in the natural world and engineers and physical scientists developing artificial sensors. Contributions from leading scientists in this area, whether engineers or biologists, are written to be accessible to readers from these and other disciplines. The main topics cover mechanical sensors, visual sensors and vision and chemosensors. Readers will obtain a fuller understanding of the nature and performance of natural sensors as well as enhanced appreciation for the current status and the potential applicability of artificial microsensors. Friedrich G. Barth was awarded the "Karl-Ritter-von-Frisch-Medaille” at the 2003 Annual Conference of the German Zoological Society in Halle, Germany.
 

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Contents

Sensors and Sensing A Biologists View
3
Sensors and Sensing An Engineers View
17
Mechanical Sensors
35
How Nature Designs Ears
37
How to Build a Microphone
49
The Middle and External Ears of Terrestrial Vertebrates as Mechanical and Acoustic Transducers
59
The Outer Hair Cell A Mechanoelectrical and Electromechanical SensorActuator
71
The Silicon Cochlea
97
Visual Sensors and Vision
221
From Fly Vision to Robot Vision ReConstruction as a Mode of Discovery
223
Locusts Looming Detectors for Robot Sensors
237
RetinaLike Sensors Motivations Technology and Applications
251
Computing in Cortical Columns Information Processing in Visual Cortex
263
Vision by Graph Pyramids
275
Chemosensors and Chemosensing
289
Mechanisms for Gradient Following
291

BiologicallyInspired Microfabricated Force and Position MechanoSensors
109
Force and Motion
127
The Physics of Arthropod MediumFlow Sensitive Hairs Biological Models for Artificial Sensors
129
Cricket Wind Receptors Thermal Noise for the Highest Sensitivity Known
145
Arthropod Cuticular Hairs Tactile Sensors and the Refinement of Stimulus Transformation
159
The Fish Lateral Line How to Detect Hydrodynamic Stimuli
173
The Blood Vasculature as an Adaptive System Role of Mechanical Sensing
187
Mechanism of Shear StressInduced Coronary Microvascular Dilation
197
A Possible Mechanism for Sensing Crop Canopy Ventilation
213
Representation of Odor Information in the Olfactory System From Biology to an Artificial Nose
305
The External Aerodynamics of Canine Olfaction
323
Microcantilevers for Physical Chemical and Biological Sensing
337
The Embedding of Sensors
357
Embedded Mechanical Sensors in Artificial and Biological Systems
359
Active Dressware Wearable Kinesthetic Systems
379
Index
393
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