Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 27, 2010 - Technology & Engineering - 596 pages
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The ?eld of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the p- vious version of this work. Fifteen years ago the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new. Now it holds an eminent position as a venue for research on sensory test methods (among many other topics). Hundreds of articles relevant to sensory testing have appeared in that and in other journals such as the Journal of Sensory Studies. Knowledge of the intricate cellular processes in chemoreception, as well as their genetic basis, has undergone nothing less than a revolution, culminating in the award of the Nobel Prize to Buck and Axel in 2004 for their discovery of the olfactory receptor gene super family. Advances in statistical methodology have accelerated as well. Sensometrics meetings are now vigorous and well-attended annual events. Ideas like Thurstonian modeling were not widely embraced 15 years ago, but now seem to be part of the everyday thought process of many sensory scientists. And yet, some things stay the same. Sensory testing will always involve human participants. Humans are tough measuring instruments to work with. They come with varying degrees of acumen, training, experiences, differing genetic equipment, sensory capabilities, and of course, different preferences. Human foibles and their associated error variance will continue to place a limitation on sensory tests and actionable results. Reducing, controlling, partitioning, and explaining error variance are all at the heart of good test methods and practices.
 

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Contents

3 Principles of Good Practice
57
4 Discrimination Testing
79
5 Similarity Equivalence Testing and Discrimination Theory
101
6 Measurement of Sensory Thresholds
125
7 Scaling
148
8 TimeIntensity Methods
179
9 Context Effects and Biases in Sensory Judgment
202
10 Descriptive Analysis
227
17 Quality Control and ShelfLife Stability Testing
406
18 Data Relationships and Multivariate Applications
433
19 Strategic Research
451
Appendix A Basic Statistical Concepts for Sensory Evaluation
472
Appendix B Nonparametric and BinomialBased StatisticalMethods
489
Appendix C Analysis of Variance
507
Appendix D Correlation Regression and Measures of Association
525
Appendix E Statistical Power and Test Sensitivity
535

11 Texture Evaluation
258
12 Color and Appearance
283
13 Preference Testing
302
14 Acceptance Testing
325
15 Consumer Field Tests and Questionnaire Design
349
16 Qualitative Consumer Research Methods
379
Appendix F Statistical Tables
551
Author Index
573
Subject Index
587
ERRATUM
597
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About the author (2010)

Harry T. Lawless is Professor of Food Science at Cornell University where he teaches sensory evaluation. He has 35 years of experience in chemosensory research and psychophysics. He spent five years in consumer testing in industry, and serves as a consultant to various food and consumer products companies on sensory test methods. Hildegarde Heymann is Professor of Viticulture and Enology at the University of California at Davis where she teaches sensory evaluation of wine and sensometrics. She spent nearly 17 years at the University of Missouri as a professor of sensory science.

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