## Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and PracticesPresenting divergent philosophies in a balanced manner, this comprehensive and up-to-date text covers all of the basic techniques of sensory testing, from simple discrimination tests to home use placements of consumers. Not only does it provide a practical guide to how tests are conducted, it also explores the fundamental psychological and statistical theories that form the basis and rationale for sensory test design. Statistics used in sensory evaluation are demonstrated as integrated applications in the context of appropriate sensory methods and are also presented as stand-alone material in appendices. Statistical applications are tailored to common analyses encountered in sensory work, so that practicality and relevance are obvious, and space is not wasted on designs or analyses that are not suitable for data collection from human observers. Offering a balanced view of diverse approaches, the text presents the chapters in such a way as to provide undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in sensory evaluation, who want only practical aspects of conducting sensory tests, with clear instructions on how tests should be conducted. Advanced students will profit from the more-detailed sections on rationale and sensory evaluation issues. The book will also be an essential reference for industrial practitioners. "It covers the entire spectrum of sensory analysis. I have read many books on this intriguing subject, but this is the Rolls-Royce." – Aubrey Parsons, governing council member, International Union for Food Science and Technology |

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### Contents

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW | 1 |

Historical Landmarks and the Three Classes of Test Methods | 6 |

The Central DogmaAnalytic vs Hedonic Tests | 13 |

Why Collect Sensory Data? | 17 |

Differences from Other Research Methods | 21 |

Summary and Conclusions | 24 |

References | 26 |

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SENSORY FUNCTION | 28 |

References | 475 |

CONSUMER FIELD TESTS AND QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN | 480 |

Central Location Home Use | 484 |

Practical Conduct of Home Use Tests | 489 |

Interacting with Field Services | 492 |

Questionnaire Design | 499 |

10 Rules of Thumb for Questionnaire Construction | 503 |

Conclusions | 511 |

Anatomy Physiology and Functions of Taste | 39 |

Anatomy Physiology and Functions of Smell | 50 |

The Trigeminal Flavor Senses | 61 |

Sensory Interactions | 67 |

Summary and Conclusions | 73 |

References | 74 |

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE | 83 |

Sensory Testing Environment | 85 |

Test Protocol Considerations | 91 |

Tabulation and Analysis | 112 |

Conclusion | 113 |

References | 114 |

DISCRIMINATION TESTING | 116 |

Types of Discrimination Tests | 117 |

Reputed Strengths and Weaknesses | 128 |

Data Analyses | 129 |

Issues | 133 |

Common Mistakes Made in the Interpretation of Discrimination Tests | 138 |

DISCRIMINATION THEORIES AND ADVANCED TOPICS | 140 |

The Theory of Signal Detection | 142 |

Thurstonian Models for Choice Tests | 151 |

Signal Detection Applied to Foods Using the Rindex | 157 |

Guessing Models and Discriminator Theory | 159 |

Estimating Sample Size in Discrimination Tests | 164 |

The Test for Significant Similarity | 166 |

Signal detection Thurstonian and Guessing Models for Discrimination | 170 |

References | 171 |

MEASUREMENT OF SENSORY THRESHOLDS | 173 |

Concepts Issues and Problems | 176 |

Ascending Forcedchoice | 181 |

Rated Difference Adaptive Procedures Signal Detection | 191 |

Dilution Analysis and Odor Units | 198 |

Conclusions | 202 |

References | 204 |

SCALING | 208 |

Common Methods of Scaling | 216 |

Some VariationsOther Scaling Techniques | 230 |

What Is a Good Scale? | 241 |

Practical Guidelines | 246 |

Conclusions | 253 |

The 9Point Scale RevisitedHow They Did It | 254 |

References | 259 |

TIMEINTENSITY METHODS | 265 |

History of TimeIntensity Methods | 267 |

Examples and Applications | 270 |

Data Analysis Issues | 283 |

Problems and Remaining Questions | 290 |

Conclusions | 294 |

References | 296 |

CONTEXT EFFECTS AND BIASES IN SENSORY JUDGMENT | 301 |

Simple Contrast and Adaptation Level | 306 |

Range Frequency Theory | 315 |

Poultons Classification of Biases | 319 |

Halo Effects and False Enhancement from Response Restriction | 326 |

Classical Psychological Errors | 330 |

Antidotes | 332 |

Conclusions | 335 |

References | 337 |

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS | 341 |

Language and Descriptive Analysis | 342 |

Descriptive Analysis Techniques | 346 |

References | 372 |

TEXTURE EVALUATION | 379 |

Auditory Visual and Tactile Texture | 383 |

Sensory Texture Measurements | 392 |

Instrumental Texture Measurements and Sensory Correlations | 395 |

Conclusions | 399 |

References | 400 |

COLOR AND APPEARANCE | 406 |

What Is Color | 408 |

Vision | 410 |

Measurement of Appearance and Color Attributes | 411 |

Instrumental Color Measurement | 417 |

Conclusions | 428 |

ACCEPTANCE AND PREFERENCE TESTING | 430 |

Preference Tests | 431 |

Acceptance Tests | 450 |

Variations on Acceptance | 457 |

Qualifying Panelists | 470 |

Conclusions | 474 |

References | 513 |

Sample Consumer Test Questionnaire | 514 |

QUALITATIVE CONSUMER RESEARCH METHODS | 519 |

Characteristics of Focus Groups | 523 |

Using Focus Groups in Sensory Evaluation | 526 |

Conducting Focus Group Studies | 528 |

Issues in Moderating | 533 |

Analysis and Reporting | 536 |

Alternative Procedures and Variations of the Group Interview | 541 |

Conclusions | 544 |

References | 546 |

SENSORY EVALUATION IN QUALITY CONTROL | 548 |

Program Development and Management Issues | 552 |

Features of a Sensory QC System | 555 |

Methods for Sensory QC | 558 |

Importance of Good Practice | 574 |

Summary and Conclusions | 577 |

Whither Excellence? | 578 |

References | 582 |

DATA RELATIONSHIPS AND MULTIVARIATE APPLICATIONS | 585 |

Overview of Multivariate Statistical Techniques | 586 |

Relating Consumer and Descriptive Data | 596 |

Conclusions | 598 |

STRATEGIC RESEARCH | 602 |

The Category Review | 605 |

Perceptual Mapping and Opportunity Identification | 606 |

Consumer Contact | 618 |

Conclusions | 620 |

OVERVIEW OF SENSORY PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES | 623 |

50 or so Rules of Thumb for Sensory Testing | 625 |

Flowcharts for Sensory Evaluation Procedures | 630 |

Sensory Evaluation in Industrial and Academic Research | 640 |

Conclusions | 644 |

References | 646 |

BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS FOR SENSORY EVALUATION | 647 |

Basic Statistical Concepts | 650 |

Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Inference | 658 |

Variations of the tTest | 667 |

Statistical Hypothesis Testing | 674 |

What pvalues Signify and What They Dont | 675 |

678 | |

NON PARAMETRIC AND BINOMIALBASED STATISTICAL METHODS | 679 |

BinomialBased Tests on Proportions | 681 |

ChiSquare | 686 |

McNemar Test | 688 |

Useful Rank Order Tests | 691 |

Mann Whitney U Test | 692 |

Ranked Data with More Than Two Samples | 694 |

The Spearman Rank Order Correlation | 697 |

Conclusions | 698 |

References | 699 |

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 701 |

Basic Analysis of Variance Rationale and Worked Example | 702 |

An Interlude for the Confused | 707 |

MultipleFactor Analysis of Variance and the Concept of a Linear Model | 708 |

Analysis of Variance from Complete Block Designs and Partitioning of Panelist Variance | 712 |

Fixed or Random Effects | 719 |

Planned Comparisons Between Means Following ANOVA | 722 |

TwoWay Anova from Randomized Complete Block Designs | 724 |

SplitPlot or BetweenGroups Nested Designs | 731 |

Other Techniques | 735 |

References | 737 |

CORRELATION REGRESSION AND MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION | 738 |

Correlation | 741 |

Linear Regression | 745 |

Multiple Linear Regression | 749 |

753 | |

STATISTICAL POWER AND TEST SENSITIVITY | 754 |

Factors Affecting the Power of Statistical Tests | 757 |

Worked Examples | 767 |

Power in Simple Difference and Preference Tests | 771 |

Summary and Conclusions | 778 |

781 | |

STATISTICAL TABLES | 783 |

BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES FROM DISCRIMINATION TESTS | 795 |

COMPLETE BLOCK ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 797 |

GLOSSARY OF TERMS | 803 |

819 | |

### Other editions - View all

Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices Harry T. Lawless,Hildegarde Heymann Limited preview - 2013 |

Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices Hildegarde Heymann,Harry T. Lawless Limited preview - 2013 |

### Common terms and phrases

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