Sewn in the Sweatshops of Marx: Beuys, Warhol, Klein, Duchamp
Joseph Beuys, Andy Warhol, Yves Klein, and Marcel Duchamp form an unlikely quartet, but they each played a singular role in shaping a new avant-garde for the 1960s and beyond. Each of them staged brash, even shocking, events and produced works that challenged the way the mainstream art world operated and thought about itself. Distinguished philosopher Thierry de Duve binds these artists through another connection: the mapping of the aesthetic field onto political economy. Karl Marx provides the red thread tying together these four beautifully written essays in which de Duve treats each artist as a distinct, characteristic figure in that mapping. He sees in Beuys, who imagined a new economic system where creativity, not money, was the true capital, the incarnation of the last of the proletarians; he carries forward Warhol’s desire to be a machine of mass production and draws the consequences for aesthetic theory; he calls Klein, who staked a claim on pictorial space as if it were a commodity, “The dead dealer”; and he reads Duchamp as the witty financier who holds the secret of artistic exchange value. Throughout, de Duve expresses his view that the mapping of the aesthetic field onto political economy is a phenomenon that should be seen as central to modernity in art. Even more, de Duve shows that Marx—though perhaps no longer the “Marxist” Marx of yore—can still help us resist the current disenchantment with modernity’s many unmet promises. An intriguing look at these four influential artists, Sewn in the Sweatshops of Marx is an absorbing investigation into the many intertwined relationships between the economic and artistic realms.
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Joseph Beuys or The Last of the Proletarians
Andy Warhol or The Machine Perfected
Yves Klein or The Dead Dealer
Marcel Duchamp or The Phynancier of Modern Life
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20 2 Artists 2012 Artists Rights ADAGP aesthetic field aesthetic value Andy Warhol Foundation Arensberg arrhe art market Art Resource artisan Artists Rights Society avant-gardes Beuys’s bohemia buyer capital capitalist commodity concept of alienation congruence consumer courtesy of Yves creativity desire disalienated division of labor Edie Sedgwick emancipation essence Ex-Voto exchange value exploited fetishism field of political gallery human humankind images immaterial incarnate the proletarian industrial International Klein Blue Joseph Beuys labor power mapping Marx calls Marx’s means of production monochromes monopoly Mott Mott’s Museo di Capodimonte Mutt myth one’s painter painting Paris Photo Photograph courtesy Phynance pictorial sensibility Piero Manzoni political economy postulate proletarian promise reified relations of production Roy Lichtenstein Roy Lichtenstein Foundation Saint Rita sell social relations specific Succession Marcel Duchamp suffering surplus value tion Tzanck Check urinal utopias Valerie Solanas VG Bild-Kunst wageworker wanted wishful thinking worker wrong York Yves Klein Archives