Shape from shading: a method for obtaining the shape of a smooth opaque object from one view
A method is described for finding the shape of a smooth opaque object from a monocular image, given a knowledge of the surface photometry, the position of the lightsource and certain auxiliary information to resolve ambiguities. This method is complementary to the use of stereoscopy which relies on matching up sharp detail and will fail on smooth objects. Until now the image processing of single views has been restricted to objects which can meaningfully be considered two-dimensional or bounded by plane surfaces. ... A number of applications of this method will be discussed including one to lunar topography and one to the scanning electron microscope. In both of these cases great simplifications occur in the equations. A note on polyhedra follows and a quantitative theory of facial make-up is touched upon. An implementation of some of these ideas on the PDP-6 computer with its attached image-dissector camera at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory will be described, and also a nose-recognition program. (Author).
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accuracy algorithm ambiguity edge base characteristics Bond albedo characteristic strip constant contour coordinate system corresponding cos(e cos(g cos(i cos(t crossing depth-cue determining shape display distance DISTANT CAMERA distant source dot-product emittance angle error exit pupil extremum occurs Figure five ordinary differential given image illumination equation image plane image point image-dissector incident angle initial curve intensity gradients interpolated light-source lunar topography matt paint method neighboring normal nose nose-recognition ordinary differential equations parameter partial differential equation photo-cathode position possible problem procedure PROJECT MAC projection pseudo-distance raster of points reflectivity function ring rotation Runge-Kutta method scanning electron microscope shading information shadows shape from shading shape-from-shading simple simplify sin(i sin(t singular point SMOOTH OPAQUE OBJECT solid angle solution obtained solution surface specular component specular reflectivity sphere spherical spherical cap step-size subsection three angles transparencies uniform illumination usually values vector