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ALTERNATIVES TO SHIFTING CULTIVATION
SOCIAL AND POLICY ASPECTS OF INTENSIFICATION
Africa agricultural development agroforestry agroforestry systems alley cropping areas Asia biomass Brazil bush fallow cassava clearing Collective Costa Rica Council for Research crop production cropping systems cycle deforestation described discussed ecological economic ecosystem edited effects English environmental farmers farming systems fodder food crops forage forestry fuelwood green manure humid tropics ICRAF improved increased India Indonesia inputs intercropping International Council jhum Kenya labour legumes livestock maize Malaysia methods mulch multipurpose trees Nairobi Nigeria nitrogen nitrogen fixation nutrient organic matter paper pasture Philippines plantations planting plots population potential practices Pradesh problems production systems programme region Research in Agroforestry rice rotation rural savanna shifting cultivation slash and burn small farms soil conservation soil erosion soil fertility strategies subsistence swidden t/ha taungya techniques Thailand traditional tree crops tree species tropical agriculture tropical forest upland vegetation village workshop yields zone