Skills Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
In no region other than Africa is the trade-off drawn more sharply between the achievement of skills development with Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and providing universal basic education. Both are important to economic growth and poverty reduction, but the fiscal and administrative capacity of the state to meet both goals is limited. The presence of HIV/AIDS and its de-skilling of the labor force compounds the problem. Defining the role of the state more strategically in the provision and financing of TVET is essential to achieving Education for All and the poverty reduction goal of the Millennium Development Goals. Confronting this trade-off is the objective of Skills Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Written to inform clients, donors, and World Bank staff about TVET experience over the past decade, the book builds a dialogue around this experience. The study sets out to update knowledge and explore issues and recent developments in TVET and distill lessons as a guide to future skills development in the region. The focus of the analysis is on the economics of skills development. Provision of financing of TVET is examined through the lens of economic efficiency, balanced with attention to social equity.
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apprentices Atchoarena and Delluc Atchoarena and Esquieu Benin Botswana budget Cameroon capacity companies costs Cote d'lvoire countries Dabalen DANIDA demand donors economic education and training efficiency employers enrollments enterprise training enterprise-based training entrepreneurs FCFA fees firms Fluitman formal sector formal training Ghana graduates Haan and Serriere HIV/AIDS impact important improve incentives income increased industrial informal economy informal sector investment Kenya labor force labor market Mali master craftspersons Mauritius ment micro and small national training nongovernment providers NQFs payroll levies percent private sector production public sector public training reforms relevance role schools sector training Senegal skills development skills training small enterprises Source South Africa studies Sub-Saharan Africa subsidies Tanzania technical tion trade training centers training funds training markets training systems TVET Uganda upgrading vocational education vocational training vouchers wage employment workers World Bank Zambia Ziderman Zimbabwe
Page xxiv - Trln — trillion TsK— Central Committee UR — Union-Republic UK— United Kingdom UN— United Nations UNCTAD — United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP — United Nations Development Program UNESCO— United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNHCR — United Nations High Commission for Refugees UNIDO— United Nations Industrial Development Organization UPU — Universal Postal Union US— United States US$— US dollar USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist...
Page 45 - Economically active population, in line with the labor force concept, comprises all persons aged 1 5 to70 of either sex who furnish the supply of labor for the production of goods and services during a specified time period. Economically active population includes persons engaged in economic activity defined as gainful employment (employed) and the unemployed (by the ILO definition). Employed...
Page 4 - Rigid, centralized public training systems have become more responsive where individual training institutes have been given the freedom to set fees, adapt training to local needs, hire appropriate staff, and choose methods of instruction. The shift from financing inputs for training to financing performance and outcomes has helped change incentives for improvements.
Page 17 - Africa's future economic growth will depend less on its natural resources, which are being depleted and are subject to long-run price declines (chapter 1), and more on its labor skills and its ability to accelerate a demographic transition.
Page 9 - There are five options for mobilizing additional resources for skills development: (1) payroll levies on employers, (2) tuition and other fees paid by enterprises or trainees and their families, (3) production and sale of goods and services by training institutions, (4) community support and donations, and (5), indirectly, the expansion of nongovernment provision.
Page 18 - Secondly, returns to education is higher in countries at a lower stage of development, and with a narrower base of education. Thirdly, returns to primary education (whether social or private) are highest among all educational levels. Finally, the private returns are in excess of social returns, especially at the university level. This information can help us to decide the choice between primary...
Page 177 - ... and skills is derived from sound macroeconomic policies that promote investment and job creation. Training alone does not create jobs. The stagnation of wage employment in Sub-Saharan Africa...
Page 8 - Training for the informal sector is necessarily different from that for the formal sector in its preference for merging technical skills with business management skills and delivering these courses with a flexible schedule.
Page 8 - Traditional apprenticeship training is selffinancing, self-regulating, and cost-effective, but it perpetuates traditional technologies and lacks standards and quality assurance. The informal sector is where most of the...
Page 74 - The administrative bifurcation does not facilitate the emergence of policies on a joint approach to the relationship between training and employment. The coexistence of various ministries sharing supervision of TVET has undermined the coherence of the system.