Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem

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Rowman Altamira, 2003 - History - 505 pages
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In her new book, well-known Africanist Suzanne Miers places modern slavery in its historical context, tracing the phenomenal development of the international anti-slavery movement over the last hundred years. She demonstrates how the problems of eradication seem greater and more intractable today than they had ever been, showing how slavery has expanded to include newer forms from 1919 to 2000, some of them crueler than the chattel slavery so familiar to the public mind. Miers describes the targets of ongoing anti-slavery campaigns, including forced labor, forced prostitution, forced marriage, the exploitation of child labor and of migrant and contract labor. She centers her story on Great Britain's efforts to suppress the slave trade since the late eighteenth century, and draws upon her extensive work in Africa, where slavery has attracted the greatest humanitarian and international attention. This book is a valuable resource for those interested in world history, slavery, race and ethnic history, international human rights, and labor in the world economy.
 

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Contents

The Rise of the British Antislavery Movement
1
The Outlawing of the British Slave Trade
3
The Abolition of Slavery in British Colonies
4
Indentured or Contract Labor
6
The British and Foreign AntiSlavery Society and Universal Abolition
7
Forging a Treaty Network against the Slave Trade
14
Building the British Treaty Network
15
The Partition of Africa and the Loopholes in the Maritime Treaty Network
18
The AntiSlavery Society and British Policy
200
The Definition of Slavery
207
Practices Restrictive of the Liberty of the Person
208
The Establishment of a Permanent Advisory Committee of Experts on Slavery
209
The Advisory Committee of Experts on Slavery
216
Choosing the Experts
217
The Rules of Procedure
218
Defusing Opposition by Redefining Slavery
219

The Berlin Declaration 1885
19
The Brussels Act of 1890
20
The Brussels Act and the Justification of Colonial Rule
21
The Brussels and Zanzibar Bureaus
22
The Impact of the Brussels Act
23
Emancipation in Theory and Practice
29
The British Indian Model of Emancipation
30
The Concept of Benign Slavery and the British Definition of Slavery
31
British Antislavery Policy in Africa
32
Indian Model of Emancipation in British African Territories
34
Emancipation in the African Territories of Other Colonial Powers
38
The Slow Decline of Slavery in Africa
41
From Slavery to New Forms of Exploitation
47
Britains Dilemma over Sāo Tomé and Principe
48
Britain and the Congo Scandal
51
Britain and the Putumayo Scandal
53
New International Machinery
58
The Mandates System
59
The Abrogation of the Berlin and Brussels Acts in 1919
61
The International Labor Organization ILO
62
Ethiopia the League of Nations and Slavery
66
Harris Goes to the League of Nations
72
Britain and Ethiopian Admission to the League of Nations
74
The Secret Trade of the Red Sea
76
Ethiopia Joins the League of Nations
78
Slavery in Hijaz
87
Slavery in Hijaz in the early 1920s
88
Britain and the Hijazi Slave Trade
91
Consular Manumission
94
The Temporary Slavery Commission and the Expanding
100
Choosing Experts
102
The Commission Defines Its Mandate and Evaluates Its Evidence
106
Playing the Antislavery Game
110
The Protection of Women and Children
111
DebtBondage
112
Forced Labor
113
The Results of the Temporary Slavery Commission
115
The Slavery Convention of 1926
121
The League of Nations of Nations Draft Convention 1925
122
Humanitarian Criticism of the Draft Convention
124
The Maritime Articles of the Draft Convention
125
The Slavery and Forced Labor Articles
126
Final Negotiations at the League over the Slavery Convention of 1926
128
The Importance of the Slavery Convention of 1926
130
The International Labor Organization and the Forced Labor Convention
134
Forced Labor for Public Works
135
Forced Labor for Private Enterprises
136
Forced Crop Growing
138
Communal Labor
139
The Forced Recruitment of Contract Labor
140
Britain and the ILO Proposal for a Forced Labor Convention
141
The Colonial Powers Water Down the Convention
143
The Forced Labor Convention of 1930
146
Results of the Forced Labor Convention
148
The League of Nations and Slavery in the British Empire
152
Slavery and the Slave Trade in Sudan
153
The Final Attack on Slavery in Sierra Leone
156
The Sale of Mui Tsai
157
Slaves or Servants in the Bechuanaland Protectorate?
161
Slavery in the Aden Protectorate and Britains Satellites on the Persian Gulf
164
The Official Mind of Colonialism
166
The Problems of a Moral Foreign Policy 19251932
174
Slavery in Saudi Arabia
179
The Maritime Slave Trade
183
Liberia the League of Nations and Practices Akin to Slavery
188
The Committee of Experts on Slavery
197
Choosing the Experts
199
Maxwells Attempts to Extract Honest British Reports
221
The Committee Gets to Work
224
Maxwells Failure to Change the Rules of Procedure
231
Slavery in a Changing World 19321939 Ethiopia
239
Reform and the Italian Conquest
244
The ACE and Italian AntiSlavery Propaganda
246
Britains Continuing Dilemma over Slavery in Ethiopia
247
Slavery in a Changing World 19321939 Arabia the Red Sea and Persian Gulf
254
Breakthrough in Yemen
260
The Red Sea Slave Trade and the Pilgrimage
262
Britain and Slavery in the Persian Gulf
263
Slavery in the Aden Protectorate
267
The Advisory Committee of Experts on Slavery 19361939
278
Colonial Africa
279
Burma and India
282
Unfree Child LaborMui Tsai
283
DebtBondage Including Pawning and Peonage
287
Serfdom
288
The Demise of the ACE
289
Shortcomings in the International Antislavery Mechanisms
293
The Slavery Question from 1939 to 1949
300
Slavery in the Aden Protectorate
304
The Slave Trade in Arabia and the Persian Gulf
306
The Cold War and the Supplementary Slavery Convention of 1956
317
Slavery Forced Labor and the Cold War
320
The Ad Hoc Committee on Slavery 19501951
323
Drafting the Supplementary Convention of 1956
326
The Results of the Supplementary Convention
331
The End of Slavery in Arabia and the Persian Gulf 19501970
339
Slavery and the Buraimi Conflict
342
The Abolition of slavery in Muscat and Oman
345
The Abolition of Slavery in Saudi Arabia
347
The Suppression of Slavery in the Aden Protectorates and Yemen
350
Slavery at the United Nations 19561966
358
Slavery at the United Nations 19561966
359
The Special Rapporteurs Inquiry
361
International Politics and the Awad Report
363
Awads Recommendations
364
Results of the Awad Report
365
The Defeat of the Proposal for a United Nations Slavery Committee
366
The Final Struggle for a United Nations Slavery Committee 19661974
373
Slavery and the SubCommission
376
The Appointment of Another Special Rapporteur on Slavery
379
The AllParty Parliamentary Group on Slavery
381
A UN Working Group on Slavery Finally Established
384
Past Efforts and Future Problems
385
Epilogue The UN Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery
392
Governments and the Working Group
400
The Growing Involvement of UN Bodies and Specialized Agencies
402
The Vital Role of NGOs
403
Contemporary Forms of Slavery
415
Chattel Slavery and Its Vestiges
418
DebtBondage
423
The Exploitation of Children
425
Adult Trafficking and Forced Prostitution
432
Servile Marriage Early and Forced Marriage
434
Cult or Ritual Slavery
436
Conclusion The Antislavery Campaign in the Twentieth Century
445
The United Nations and Slavery to 1975
449
The Achievements and Failings of the UN Working Group
450
The Need for Rigorous Definitions in Conventions
452
Results of the Antislavery Campaign in the Twentieth Century
453
Bibliography
457
Index
485
About the Author
505
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

Suzanne Miers is emerita professor of African history at Ohio University. She has also taught at the Universities of Wisconsin, London, and Malaya (Singapore). She is the author of Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade and numerous articles. She co-edited with Igor Kopytoff, Slavery in Africa, with Martin Klein, Slavery and Colonial Rule in Africa, with Richard Roberts, The End of Slavery in Africa, and with Maria Jaschok, Women and Chinese Patriarchy.

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