Small Phrase Layers: A Study of Finnish Manner Adverbials
This monograph examines the structure and properties of Finnish manner adverbials. The central idea is that, instead of AdvPs, DPs, APs, PPs, NumPs and InfinitivalPs, manner adverbials have the form of either kPs or pPs, and they are licensed as unique specifiers of a manner-related small vP. Secondly, because obligatory and optional manner adverbials are merged as specifiers of one and the same small vP, the computational system of language sees no difference between them. This is why obligatory and optional manner adverbials often behave in exactly the same way with regard to syntactic operations such as movement. Thirdly, the author shows that, although all arguments and VP-internal adverbials are merged as specifiers of a unique small vP, this hierarchical structure need not always be reflected in an unambiguous linear order: in many languages VP-internal manner, place and time adverbials are allowed to permute freely because they have no features which would need checking by the features of a higher functional head, and because their original Spec,vP positions are invisible to the Linear Correspondence Axiom. Although the argumentation and analyses are mainly supported by Finnish data, the author also shows how they can be applied to other languages. The book also contains an extensive introduction to Finnish, to help readers unfamiliar with the language to follow the discussion.
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adessive adjectives affixes agent argument Alexiadou ampui analysis argues AspectP assigned associated assume asymmetric c-command badly Baltic Sea behaved.3sg checked and valued Chomsky Chomsky's Cinque circumstantial adverbials claimed that Sirkku claimed.3sg that Sirkku clitics complement constructions derivation discussion elements examples fast feature checking FinP focus functional heads functional projections Graham Greene Hakulinen & Karlsson Holmberg & Nikanne huonosti infinitival interpretation käveli Kiinassa killed.3sg kohteli Laenzlinger laiva lexical licensing limp linear order little v heads little vPs locative Lucky Luke manner adverbials manner-related merged as specifiers Minimalist morpheme movement negative polarity item nominal not.3sg nouns obligatory ontumalla phonologically postpositional phrases proposed Pulmu claimed Pulmu claimed.3sg Pulmu väitti Pulmu.acc semantic feature Spec,VP specifier positions structural position syntactic tappoi theme arguments theme direct objects theta role transitive unaccusative unaccusative verbs unergative unergative verbs uninterpretable case features väitti että Sirkku verbs Vilkuna word order