Social Science Methods in the Legal Process
This volume is the first to provide a systematic introduction to the methods of social science for the legal professions and decision-makers in public policy fields. Designed as both a text and a convenient reference, the book provides an understanding of all the elements in the research process and acquaints the reader with the choices that are available in designing and conducting research. A particularly useful feature is each chapter's examination of research cited in specific court or public policy decisions, together with discussion of possible legal applications of various research approaches.
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EVALUATING MEASUREMENT QUALITY
CHECKLIST FOR ISSUES OF MEASUREMENT
DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND THE USE OF EXISTING DATA
VERIFICATION OF ORIGINAL AND EXISTING DATA
RESPONSE RATES AND HANDLING NONRESPONSE
CHECKLIST FOR PLANNING OR EVALUATING RESEARCH QUESTIONS
RESEARCH DESIGNS AND THEIR VALIDITY
RESEARCH FOR IDENTIFYING CAUSATION
SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN
THE CLASSIC EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
DEPARTURES FROM THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL
CHECKLIST FOR RESEARCH DESIGNS
POPULATION IDENTIFICATION AND SAMPLING
STATISTICAL DETERMINANTS OF SAMPLE SIZE
NONSTATISTICAL DETERMINANTS OF SAMPLE SIZE
THE DECISION NOT TO DRAW A SAMPLE
CHECKLIST FOR POPULATION IDENTIFICATION AND SAMPLING
WORKING DEFINITIONS FOR MEASUREMENT
THE POSING OF QUESTIONS
THE USE OF EXISTING DATA
FILES AND RECORDS AS DATA SOURCES
CHECKLIST FOR DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND USE OF EXISTING DATA
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR SINGLE VARIABLES
SUMMARIZING THE DISTRIBUTION OF SINGLE VARIABLES
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR TWO OR MORE VARIABLES
QUESTIONS ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES
THE NEXT STEP
ESTIMATES OF POPULATION VALUES
PRACTICAL AND STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
CONTROL AND CAUSATION
CHECKLIST FOR INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
COLLABORATION BETWEEN LAWYERS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
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answer categories application appropriate assessment average beta coefficient busing calculated capital punishment causal Census Chapter cluster compared comparison confidence interval control groups control variables correlation Court data collection decision described descriptive statistics determine difference discrimination discussed distribution ecological fallacy effect employees estimate evaluation example experience factors figures findings Hazelwood School District hiring identified income independent and dependent independent variable indicate individuals inferences inferential statistics internal validity interviews issue jury Loether mean methodology neighborhood nonresponse null hypothesis occurred percent percentage population presented probability problem procedures proportion racial random assignment random sample random selection randomly regression analysis relevant research design research question respondents response rate rival hypotheses sampling frame scores simple random sample social science research social scientist specific standard deviation standard error statistical significance stratified subgroup supra note survey teachers tion types unit of analysis
Page 24 - The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert bases an opinion or inference may be those perceived by or made known to the expert at or before the hearing. If of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field...
Page 5 - At the same time, when a question of fact is debated and debatable, and the extent to which a special constitutional limitation goes is affected by the truth in respect to that fact, a widespread and long-continued belief concerning it is worthy of consideration. We take judicial cognizance of all matters of general knowledge.
Page 24 - The offeror has the burden of establishing that a proffered poll was conducted in accordance with accepted principles of survey research, ^ ie, that the proper universe was examined, that a representative « sample was drawn from that universe, and that the mode of questioning the interviewees was correct. He should be required to show that: the persons conducting the survey were recognized experts; the data gathered was accurately reported; and the sample design, the questionnaire and the interviewing...
Page 24 - The rule also offers a more satisfactory basis for ruling upon the admissibility of public opinion poll evidence. Attention is directed to the validity of the techniques employed rather than to relatively fruitless inquiries whether hearsay is involved.
Page 31 - INTEREST employment, housing, schooling, and social relationships in general. Discrimination in turn leads to social and economic inequality on the one hand, and segregation on the other hand. Inequality and segregation are mutually reinforcing conditions, reflecting not only the judicial doctrine that separation is inherently unequal, but also the social reality that segregation of a deprived group can cut off channels and networks that might be used to gain equality. Segregation and inequality...
Page 6 - ... modern authority." In view of their devoted efforts to defeat segregation, this was the kind of gesture a magnanimous judge would feel impelled to make, and we are bound to take satisfaction in the accolade. Yet, once the courtesy had been paid, the Court was not disposed in the least to go farther or base its determination on the expert testimony.
Page 31 - ... prejudice consisting in stereotyped beliefs about 'black people. These beliefs lead to discriminatory behavior in employment, housing, schooling, and social relationships in general. Discrimination in turn leads to social and economic inequality, on the one hand, and segregation on the other hand. Inequality and segregation are mutually reinforcing conditions, reflecting not only the judicial doctrine that separation is inherently unequal, but also the social reality that segregation of a deprived...