Social Exclusion and Mobility in Brazil
Estanislao Gacitúa-Marió, Michael J. V. Woolcock
World Bank, 2008 - Business & Economics - 133 pages
Brazil is a country of sharp disparities. The gap between the richest and the poorest citizens is one of the largest in the world. Inequality in Brazil is well-known, but its low mobility is not. Until now, few studies have sought to investigate how forms of social exclusion constrain socioeconomic mobility. Why do particular groups remain excluded and trapped in poverty for generations? What do Brazilians themselves think about income inequality and social mobility? This study explores these issues, provides a set of options to redress them, and promotes a national dialogue for action. In addition to reviewing pertinent literature, Social Exclusion and Mobility in Brazil examines the changing income dynamics among homogeneous groups over a 20-year period. With respect to mobility, it tracks changes in the relative positions of social groups with similar characteristics. The analysis derives factors affecting the probability that certain groups will continue to lack equal access to the economic, cultural, and political resources that would improve their living standards. The current political climate in Brazil offers a unique opportunity to open a new and more informed conversation on the dynamics of exclusion and mobility. This book contributes to that conversation.
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analysis average household Average per capita Bolsa Escola brasileira Brasília Brazil Brazilians capita average income capita household income changes Cohort born Corseuil Desigualdade e pobreza Development earnings economic Ferreira formal schooling Fundação Getúlio Vargas gender Gini coefficient household per capita IBGE incidence of poverty income inequality income rankings income-ranking correlations increased indicate individuals inequality in Brazil informal sector Instituto de Pesquisa labor market Latin America nonwhites older oldest cohorts Paes de Barros Paulo pension and retirement perceived percent Percentage Pesquisa Económica Aplicada PNAD pobreza no Brasil policies poor poorest population Poverty among Brazilians poverty decreased poverty line 1981 poverty rates poverty reduction R$160 poverty line R$80 poverty race racial regions Ricardo Henriques Rio de Janeiro rural São Paulo significant social exclusion social groups social mobility Source tertiary education Texto para discussão trabalho urban Valle Silva variables wage Women Men Women workers World Bank youngest cohorts