Soils in Archaeological Research
Soils, invaluable indicators of the nature and history of the physical and human landscape, have strongly influenced the cultural record left to archaeologists. Not only are they primary reservoirs for artifacts, they often encase entire sites. And soil-forming processes in themselves are an important component of site formation, influencing which artifacts, features, and environmental indicators (floral, faunal, and geological) will be destroyed and to what extent and which will be preserved and how well. In this book, Holliday will address each of these issues in terms of fundamentals as well as in field case histories from all over the world. The focus will be on principles of soil geomorphology , soil stratigraphy, and soil chemistry and their applications in archaeological research.
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2 Terminology and Methodology
3 Conceptual Approaches to Pedogenesis
4 Soil Surveys and Archaeology
5 Soil Stratigraphy
6 Soil Stratigraphy in Geoarchaeological Contexts
7 Soils and Time
8 Soils and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions
9 Soils and Landscape Evolution
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accumulation acid aggrading agricultural alluvial alluvium anthropogenic anthrosols archaeological contexts archaeological sites argillic horizon artifacts associated bioturbation Birkeland Bt horizon burial buried A horizons buried soils calcic horizon carbonate chapter characteristics chemical chronosequence clay climate color correlation Courty cumulic dating deposits discussed Eidt environmental environments eolian erosion extraction factors floodplain geoarchaeological geomorphology Gvirtzman hamra Holliday human activity indicative interpretation isotope Johnson landscape late Holocene layers leaching loess Lubbock Lake Macphail Mandel mapping methods midden Mollisols morphology occupation zones organic matter oxidation Paleoindian Paleolithic paleosol parent material pedogenesis pedogenic pedology plaggen Pleistocene podzolic Ptot Quaternary radiocarbon region relationships relatively result Ronen samples sand sediments sequence significant soil development soil formation soil geomorphic soil geomorphology soil horizons soil morphology Soil Science soil stratigraphic Soil Survey soil taxonomy soils buried soils formed stable studies surface tephra Terra Preta terraces thick tion valley Vertisols