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Atoms and Electrons
Energy Bands and Charge Carriers
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acceptor alloyed applications approximation assume atoms avalanche band gap base current base region biased bonding breakdown calculate capacitance carrier density channel characteristic collector current collector junction components conduction band constant contact potential crystal depletion region device discussed domain donor drift effects electric field electrons and holes emission emitter junction energy bands epitaxial equation equilibrium example excess carriers excess hole exponential fabrication Fermi level Figure forward bias frequency GaAs hole density hole distribution important impurity increase laser lattice layer light material mechanism metal minority carrier mode n-type negative obtained operation optical oxide p-n junction p-n-p transistor p+-n photons pinch-off population inversion positive Prob pulse quantum recombination resistance resistor result reverse bias reverse-biased sample saturation current Section semiconductor shown in Fig side space charge stored charge structure substrate surface switching techniques temperature thermal tion transistor transition region triode tunnel diode valence band wafer width zero