Solid-State Fermentation Bioreactors: Fundamentals of Design and Operation

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David A. Mitchell, Nadia Krieger, Marin Berovic
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 2, 2006 - Technology & Engineering - 448 pages
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Although solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been practiced for many centuries in the preparation of traditional fermented foods, its application to newer products within the framework of modern biotechnology is relatively restricted. It was c- sidered for the production of enzymes in the early 1900s and for the production of penicillin in the 1940s, but interest in SSF waned with the advances in submerged liquid fermentation (SLF) technology. The current dominance of SLF is not s- prising: For the majority of fermentation products, it gives better yields and is e- ier to apply. It is notoriously difficult to control the fermentation conditions in SSF; these difficulties are already apparent at small scale in the laboratory and are exacerbated with increase in scale. However, there are particular circumstances and products for which SSF technology is appropriate. For example, a desire to reuse solid organic wastes from agriculture and food processing rather than simply discarding them leads naturally to the use of SSF. Further, some microbial pr- ucts, such as fungal enzymes and spores, amongst others, are produced in higher yields or with better properties in the environment provided by SSF systems. With recognition of this potential of SSF, a revival of interest began in the mid- 1970s. However, the theoretical base for SSF bioreactor technology only began to be established around 1990.
 

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Contents

SolidState Fermentation Bioreactor Fundamentals Introduction and Overview
1
12 Why Should We Be Interested in SSF?
3
13 What Are the Current and Potential Applications of SSF?
5
14 Why Do We Need a Book on the Fundamentals of SSF Bioreactors?
6
15 How Is this Book Organized?
8
151 Introduction to SolidState Fermentation and Bioreactors
9
153 Fundamentals of Modeling of SSF Bioreactors
10
154 Modeling Case Studies of SSF Bioreactors
11
1533 Limitations of these Calibration Methods
217
Basic Features of the Kinetic Submodel
219
162 The Basic Kinetic Expression
220
163 Incorporating the Effect of the Environment on Growth
222
1631 Incorporating the Effect of Temperature on Growth
225
1632 Incorporating the Effect of Water Activity on Growth
228
1633 Combining the Effects of Several Variables
230
164 Modeling Death Kinetics
231

156 A Final Word
12
The Bioreactor Step of SSF A Complex Interaction of Phenomena
13
22 The General Steps of an SSF Process
14
23 The Bioreactor Step of an SSF Process
16
24 The Physical Structure of SSF Bioreactor Systems
17
242 A Microscale Snapshot of the Substrate Bed
20
25 A Dynamic View of the Processes Occurring
22
252 A Dynamic View with a Time Scale of Hours to Days
24
26 Where Has this Description Led Us?
31
Further Reading
32
Introduction to SolidState Fermentation Bioreactors
33
General Questions
34
321 The Crucial Questions
35
322 Other Questions to Consider
36
33 Overview of Bioreactor Types
38
332 Overview of Operating Variables
40
34 A Guide for Bioreactor Selection
41
Further Reading
43
Basics of Heat and Mass Transfer in SolidState Fermentation Bioreactors
45
43 Looking Within the Bioreactor in More Detail
47
432 Transfer Between Subsystems When the Substrate Bed Is Treated as a Single PseudoHomogeneous Phase
50
433 Transfer Between Subsystems When the Substrate Bed Is Treated as Two Separate Phases
51
434 Bulk Gas Flow Patterns and Pressure Drops
53
435 Mixing Patterns in Agitated Beds of Solids
56
The Scaleup Challenge for SSF Bioreactors
57
53 The Reason Why Scaleup Is not Simple
58
54 Approaches to Scaleup of SSF Bioreactors
63
Further Reading
64
Group I Bioreactors Unaerated and Unmixed
65
62 Use of Bag Systems in Modern Processes
66
63 Heat and Mass Transfer in Tray Bioreactors
67
632 Temperature Profiles Within Trays
69
633 Insights from Dynamic Modeling of Trays
71
64 Conclusions
75
Further Reading
76
Group II Bioreactors ForcefullyAerated Bioreactors Without Mixing
77
73 Experimental Insights into PackedBed Operation
81
731 LargeScale PackedBeds
82
732 PilotScale PackedBeds
83
733 LaboratoryScale PackedBeds
84
74 Conclusions on PackedBed Bioreactors
93
Further Reading
94
Group III RotatingDrum and StirredDrum Bioreactors
95
83 Experimental Insights into the Operation of Group III Bioreactors
98
832 PilotScale Applications
100
833 SmallScale Applications
101
84 Insights into Mixing and Transport Phenomena in Group III Bioreactors
104
841 Solids Flow Regimes in Rotating Drums
105
842 Gas Flow Regimes in the Headspaces of Rotating Drums
110
85 Conclusions on RotatingDrum and StirredDrum Bioreactors
112
Further Reading
114
Group IVa ContinuouslyMixed ForcefullyAerated Bioreactors
115
93 Where ContinuouslyAgitated ForcefullyAerated Bioreactors Have Been Used
117
932 GasSolid Fluidized Beds
121
933 Bioreactors Mixed by the Motion of the Bioreactor Body
123
94 Insights into Mixing and Transport Phenomena in Group IVa Bioreactors
125
95 Conclusions on Group IVa Bioreactors
128
Group IVb IntermittentlyMixed ForcefullyAerated Bioreactors
129
103 Experimental Insights into the Performance of Group IVb Bioreactors
131
1032 PilotScale IntermittentlyMixed Bioreactors
135
1033 LaboratoryScale IntermittentlyMixed Bioreactors
138
105 Conclusions on Group IVb Bioreactors
140
Continuous SolidState Fermentation Bioreactors
141
RealFlow Models
146
113 Continuous Versus Batch Mode of Operation
148
1132 Uniformity of the Product from Batch and Continuous Bioreactors
149
1133 Enhanced Production Rates
150
114 Comparison by Simulation of the Three CSSFBs
152
1142 Continuous Rotating Drum Bioreactor CRDB
154
1143 Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactor CSTB
155
1144 Evaluation of the Various CSSFB Configurations
156
115 Scientific and Technical Challenges for CSSFBs
158
Approaches to Modeling SSF Bioreactors
159
122 Using Models to Design and Optimize an SSF Bioreactor
161
1222 Current Bioreactor Models as Tools in Scaleup
163
1223 Use of the Model in Control Schemes
164
124 The Seven Steps of Developing a Bioreactor Model
167
Know What You Want to Achieve and the Effort You Are Willing to Put into Achieving It
170
Write the Equations
171
Estimate the Parameters and Decide on Values for the Operating Variables
173
Solve the Model
174
Validate the Model
175
Use the Model
177
Appropriate Levels of Complexity for Modeling SSF Bioreactors
179
1321 Growth Should Be Treated as Depending on Which Factors?
180
1322 Is It Worthwhile to Describe the Spatial Distribution of the Biomass at the Microscale?
182
1323 Typical Features of the Kinetic Submodels
183
134 At the Moment FastSolving Models Are Useful
185
135 Having Decided on FastSolving Models How to Solve Them?
188
Further Reading
189
The Kinetic Submodel of SSF Bioreactor Models General Considerations
191
142 How Will Growth Be Measured Experimentally?
194
1422 Indirect Approaches to Monitoring Growth
196
143 What Units Should Be Used for the Biomass?
197
1431 Grams of Biomass per Gram of Fresh Sample
199
1433 Grams of Biomass per Gram of Initial Fresh or Dry Sample
200
1434 Which Set of Units Is Best to Use for Expressing the Biomass?
201
145 Conclusions
204
Further Reading
205
Growth Kinetics in SSF Systems Experimental Approaches
207
1511 Flasks in an Incubator
208
1512 Columns in a Waterbath
210
1513 Comparison of the Two Systems
211
153 Estimation of Biomass from Measurements of Biomass Components
214
1532 Conversion of Measurements of Components of the Biomass
216
1642 Approaches to Modeling Death Kinetics that Have Been Used
232
165 Conclusion
234
Modeling of the Effects of Growth on the Local Environment
235
172 Terms for Heat Water Nutrients and Gases
237
1722 Water Production
238
1724 Oxygen Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Production
239
1725 General Considerations with Respect to Equations for the Effects of Growth on the Environment
243
173 Modeling Particle Size Changes
244
1732 How to Model Particle Size Changes in Bioreactor Models?
245
174 Product Formation Empirical Approaches
246
175 Conclusions
247
Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in SSF Bioreactors
249
183 Conduction
252
1832 Conduction Within a Phase
253
184 Convection
255
1842 Convective Heat Removal from Solids to Air
256
1843 Convective Heat Removal Due to Air Flow Through the Bed
258
185 Evaporation
259
1851 Evaporation from the Solids to the Air Phase
260
1852 Water Removal Due to Air Flow Through the Bed
261
186 Conclusions
263
Substrate Air and Thermodynamic Parameters for SSF Bioreactor Models
265
1921 Particle Size and Shape
266
1922 Particle Density
267
1923 Bed Packing Density
268
1924 Porosity Void Fraction
270
1925 Water Activity of the Solids
271
193 Air Density
273
194 Thermodynamic Properties
274
1941 Saturation Humidity
275
1942 Heat Capacity of the Substrate Bed
276
1943 Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water
277
Further Reading
278
Estimation of Transfer Coefficients for SSF Bioreactors
279
203 Heat Transfer Coefficients Involving the Wall
280
2031 BedtoWall Heat Transfer Coefficients
281
2033 WalltoSurroundings Heat Transfer Coefficients
282
204 SolidstoAir Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients Within Beds
283
205 BedtoHeadspace Transfer Coefficients
284
206 Conclusions
289
Bioreactor Modeling Case Studies Overview
291
212 Limitations of the Models
292
213 The Amount of Detail Provided about Model Development
293
214 The Order of the Case Studies
294
A Model of a Wellmixed SSF Bioreactor
295
2222 Values of Parameters and Variables
301
223 Insights the Model Gives into the Operation of Well Mixed Bioreactors
303
2232 Insights into Operation at Large Scale
307
2233 Effect of Scale and Operation on Contributions to Cooling of the Solids
310
224 Conclusions on the Operation of WellMixed Bioreactors
312
Further Reading
314
A Model of a RotatingDrum Bioreactor
315
2322 Predictions about Operation at Laboratory Scale
320
2323 Scaleup of WellMixed RotatingDrum Bioreactors
325
233 What Modeling Work Says about RotatingDrum Bioreactors Without Axial Mixing
328
234 Conclusions on the Design and Operation of RotatingDrum Bioreactors
329
Further reading
330
Models of PackedBed Bioreactors
331
2421 Synopsis of the Mathematical Model and its Solution
333
2422 BaseCase Predictions
334
2423 Insights that Modeling Has Given into Optimal Design and Operation of Traditional PackedBeds
336
243 A Model of the Zymotis PackedBed Bioreactor
341
2432 Insights into Optimal Design and Operation of Zymotis PackedBeds
342
244 Conclusions on PackedBed Bioreactors
347
A Model of an IntermittentlyMixed ForcefullyAerated Bioreactor
349
253 Insights the Model Gives into Operation of IntermittentlyMixed Bioreactors
353
2532 Investigation of the Design and Operation of IntermittentlyMixed ForcefullyAerated Bioreactors at Large Scale
357
254 Conclusions on IntermittentlyMixed Forcefully Aerated Bioreactors
360
Further Reading
362
Instrumentation for Monitoring SSF Bioreactors
363
263 Available Instrumentation for Online Measurements
365
264 Data Filtering
369
265 How to Measure the Other Variables?
371
Further Reading
374
Fundamentals of Process Control
375
2712 Control Loop
376
272 Conventional Control Algorithms
377
2722 PID Control
380
2723 Model Predictive Control
385
Further Reading
386
Application of Automatic Control Strategies to SSF Bioreactors
387
282 How to Control SSF Bioreactors?
388
283 Case Studies of Control in SSF Bioreactors
390
2832 ModelBased Evaluation of Control Strategies
395
284 Future Challenges in the Control of SSF Bioreactors
400
Further Reading
401
Design of the Air Preparation System for SSF Bioreactors
403
292 An Overview of the Options Available
404
293 BlowerCompressor Selection and Flow Rate Control
407
294 Piping and Connections
408
296 Humidification Columns
409
An Air Preparation System for a Pilot Scale Bioreactor
410
Further Reading
412
Future Prospects for SSF Bioreactors
413
302 Present State and Future Prospects
414
References
417
Guide to the Bioreactor Programs
428
A3 Use of the WellMixed Bioreactor Model
431
A4 Use of the RotatingDrum Bioreactor Model
433
A5 Use of the Traditional PackedBed Bioreactor Model
435
A6 Use of the Zymotis PackedBed Bioreactor Model
436
A7 Use of the Model of an IntermittentlyMixed ForcefullyAerated Bioreactor
439
Index
443
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