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absorbed activity Allen Belts American artificial astronauts atmosphere atoms auroras balloon carried cause chamber charged particles created detectors direction discharge discovery drift early earth earth's magnetic field effect electrical electrons electroscopes energy exist expected experiments Explorer fact feet Figure flux forbidden geomagnetic GM counters high altitudes high-energy intensity interplanetary ionization ionosphere ions Kolhörster Lake latitude launch leaves light lines of force magnetopause matter measured miles Millikan minute molecules natural neutron Nuclear orbit outer pass period physicist Physics plasma poles Power primary cosmic rays probes protection protons radiation belts radio radioactivity reach regions relatively Research rocket satellite Science Scientific scientists scintillator secondary shielding showed shown solar cosmic rays solar flares solar wind space radiation sphere spiral Sputnik storms surface terrestrial theory thick tongue trapped tube turned United University World zones
Page 9 - ... to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction in which the particle travels.
Page 4 - ... which may create new pairs of particles, over and over again. Finally, the photons and electrons begin to lose energy to the atmosphere by scattering, ionization, and photoelectric processes. A single event such as is shown may produce several million new particles during a period of a few millionths of a second.
Page 38 - Allen put the puzzle together in an historic report to the joint meeting of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Physical Society in Washington. Explorers 1 and 3, he said, had found a new phenomenon: a belt of intense radiation above the earth, starting at 300 miles. The region had been "sounded...
Page 26 - Stormer had no idea that a steady flux of high-energy cosmic rays enveloped the earth; he was trying to explain the aurora as a manifestation of terrestrial bombardment by low-energy, sun-emitted particles. It turned out that Stormer's work was more appropriate to cosmic rays than to auroras. Stormer's approach was this: Suppose that a charged particle is...
Page 2 - How did we learn about this celestial sea, and how can we travel to the planets through its storms ? Man was long oblivious to space radiation because of its invisibility. Cosmic rays, the Van Allen Belts, and the solar plasma were all great surprises when they were disclosed to a world long sheltered from interplanetary weather by our thick atmosphere.
Page 6 - ... photons never make it. Infrared photons, with longer wavelengths than visible light, are readily absorbed in the high atmosphere by molecules, particularly those of water vapor. Some of the ultraviolet photons, which possess short wavelengths, collide with and are absorbed by oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ) molecules.
Page 18 - Alaska. frequency of solar flares, it seems inescapable that eruptions of charged particles from the sun have something to do with igniting the auroras. Alas, science seems so easy looking backward in time, but in the early 1900s no one had yet put these pieces of the puzzle together.
Page 12 - GMtube and creates an electrical pulse that is fed to the satellite telemetry circuits. A comparison of the total rate of energy deposited in the ionization chamber with the number of particles in the vicinity yields the average particle energy.
Page 48 - ... however, the magnetic field showed extreme disorder and then a sudden drop to the level of the solar magnetic field. Subsequent mapping confirmed that the earth was surrounded by a rather sharp transition region, with the earth's field bottled up inside and the sun's field excluded outside (Figure 21).