## Space SciencesScientific and Technical Information Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1966 - Space sciences - 84 pages |

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Page 46 - In the adiabatic compression of a eas constant where 7 is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume.

Page 84 - Simpson, JA Variations of Solar Origin in the Primary Cosmic Radiation, Astrophys.

Page 20 - ... of a particle is illustrated in figure 2.2. Since a static magnetic field can do no work on a charged particle, the total energy E of the particle is conserved. In the guiding-center approximation, where the motions are separable, this requires that the total flux through the circular orbit be constant. This is equivalent to the statement, called the first adiabatic invariant of the motion, that...

Page 3 - Iraf. 1). A somewhat better fit may be obtained by displacing the dipole 340 kilometers from the center of the Earth along a line with coordinates 6.5° N and 161.8° E. Such a dipole offers an inconvenient origin for the definition of a magnetic coordinate system, and it is rarely used. When a better description of the field than the Earth-centered dipole is desired, a spherical harmonic expansion of the magnetic scalar potential is used. Such an expansion is a convergent infinite series in a spherical...

Page 44 - AND THE SHOCK STRUCTURE With this background in the nature of the interplanetary medium, it is possible to understand the rather complex interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. The solution of this problem presented in chapter 2 assumes that the particles of the solar wind have no transverse velocity component (ie, a cold plasma) and that there are no interactions between particles (so that a single particle description may be used). Collisions (Coulomb interactions) between...

Page 16 - Utilizat geographic axis with respect to the ecliptic plane. These two effects may add, depending on the season of the year and the time of day, so that the solar wind may at times be incident at magnetic latitudes of as much as ±(23.5° + 11.5°) instead of the 0° assumed in the model calculation. Such effects complicate the numerical solution of the problem but do not introduce any new effects. The observations made with instruments on satellites which have traversed the boundary indicate that...

Page 36 - ... detected by the current which they represent, and too low in energy to be detected individually. New techniques are being developed to close the gap. REFERENCES 1 FRANK, LA; VAN ALLEN, JA; AND MACAGNO, E.: Charged Particle Observations in the Earth's Outer Magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., vol. 68, 1963, pp. 3543-3554. 2. HAMLIN, DA; KARPLUS, R.; VIK, RC; AND WATSON, KM: Mirror and Azimuthal Frequencies of Geomagnetically Trapped Particles. J. Geophys. Res., vol. 66, 1961, pp. 1-4. 3. MclLWAiN,...

Page 36 - Hess has commented that making a quantitative deduction from a phenomenon caused by an unknown number of unidentified particles of uncertain energies is a questionable procedure.

Page 20 - MOTION IN THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD In general, the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic dipole field can be obtained only by numerical integration. For particles whose cyclotron radius is small compared with the scale of the geomagnetic field, the guiding-center approximation may be used to describe the motion. In this approximation the motion is separable into three components. The first component is a circular motion, perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, with the local cyclotron period...

Page 2 - M sin 0 where V is the magnetic scalar potential, 6 is the geographic colatitude, r is the distance from the origin, and M is the magnetic moment of the dipole. (The value of M is 8.06 X 1026 gauss-cm3 for the Earth.) The equation of a field line is r = r0sinJ0 where r0 is the distance from the dipole origin at which the line crosses the magnetic equator.