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Early Observations of Languages in Contact
General Discussion About Finnish Immigrants
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accent American Finnish American word becomes bilingual borrowings called Clinton colloquial common Connecticut connotative consonant gradation corresponding cousin cultural Dahlstedt dialects diglossia discussion domestic workers emigrated example expressed Fing Finglish terms Finland Finland proper Finn Finnish and English Finnish immigrant Finnish language Finnish word Fishman genuinely Finnish H.L. Mencken Hakulinen Hansegard Haugen heard Helsinki idioms Ikola Indiana informants instance interesting Joshua Fishman Kalevi Wiik language contact lexical interference linguistic loan words means Mencken modern Finnish mother tongue native Negroes never noun parents phenomenon phonemes phonological phrase plural problem pronounced pronunciation recorded second syllable semantic sentence social sound Southern Ostrobothnia speak specimens speech spoken spoken Finnish standard Finnish stress structure Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura Suomen Sweden Swedish Swedish language taken into Finglish Tietolipas tion told translation loan Umea Umea University United verb Virtaranta vocabulary vowel yield