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Properties of the Speech Signal
The Calculation of Vowel Resonances and an Electrical Vocal Tract H K Dunn Journal
Reduction of Speech Spectra by AnalysisbySynthesis Techniques C G Bell H Fujisaki J M
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Acoust algorithm all-pole AMDF amplitude analyzed antiformant approximately area function bandwidth bits cavity cepstral cepstrum channel vocoder circuit constriction corresponding curve defined equations error estimate excitation formant frequencies Fourier transform frame frequency range fricative fundamental frequency glottal glottis harmonics IEEE Trans impulse response input interval inverse filter linear prediction logarithm low-pass filter maximum measurements method minimum phase msec nasal noise obtained output parameters peak phase phase vocoder pitch detector pitch period poles and zeros predictor coefficients pulse quantization quency ratio reflection coefficients resonance second formant segment sequence short-time shown in Fig speaker spectral deviation spectral envelope spectrogram spectrum speech analysis speech signal speech spectra speech synthesis speech wave speech waveform synthesizer techniques three formants tion transfer function transmission unit circle unvoiced utterance values vocal cords vocal tract voiced speech volume velocity vowel