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The Mechanism of Speech Production
Acoustical Properties of the Vocal System
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acoustic amplitude spectrum analog analysis approximately articulation articulatory auditory baseband basilar membrane cavity cepstrum channel vocoder Chapter circuit cochlea cochlear coefficients consonants constant constriction correlation duration electrical equation equivalent error excitation F(co filter Flanagan formant frequency Fourier transform frequency range fricative fricative consonants function fundamental frequency glottal glottal wave glottis impedance impulse response input linear low-pass low-pass filter measured mechanical membrane displacement method modulation mouth msec nasal consonants neural noise output parameters pattern perception phase phase vocoder phoneme pitch period poles and zeros produced pulse quantizing radiation relations relatively represented resonance samples second formant Section short-time spectrum shown in Fig simulation sound pressure spectral spectrogram speech signal speech synthesis stapes stimulus stop consonants syllables synthesizer technique tion transmission transmitted tube unvoiced values vibration vocal cords vocal tract voiced volume velocity vowel waveform