The first authentic record of spice and herb usage is on clay tablets from the Sumarian Kingdom about 3,000 BC, and many spices were used or imported into Egypt for embalming, as incense, ointments, perfumes, poison antidotes, cosmetics and medicines. Plants that are the source of spices became important cash crops over the centuries, and since their introduction, their uses have multiplied. This has resulted in a rise in consumer demand following the popularity for natural flavorings, which has in turn increased interest in their production in temperate and tropical countries. This book is concerned with the profitable production of spice crops at all levels of management, more efficient processing and greater utilization.
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acid anethole anise annual applied areas aromatic Asia bark oil beans berries black pepper buds capsicum caraway cardamom carvone cassia characteristics chilli China cinnamon clove colour commercial common composition constituents contains coriander countries crops cultivars cultivated cumin damage dill disease distilled dried effect essential oil eugenol Europe exports extraction fennel fenugreek fertilizer flavour flowers fresh fruit germination ginger green grown growth harvested herb herbage important increase India Indonesia insects irrigation Journal kg ha"1 leaf oil leaves limonene linalool mace mainly major mature moisture monoterpene mulch mustard nutmeg nutrients odour oil content oil yield oleoresin pests plantations plants pods powder produced pungent reduce regions rhizomes root saffron seed yield seedbed seedlings similar smallholders soil sown species spice Sri Lanka stem storage temperature tion trade trees turmeric umbel usually vanilla vanillin varies vines volatile oil weed yellow zomes