St. Teresa of Avila - 100 Themes on Her Life and Work

Front Cover
ICS Publications, 2011 - Biography & Autobiography - 452 pages

As the first woman to be given the title of doctor of the church, St. Teresa of Avila continues to exercise her teaching authority in the world today both within and outside the boundaries of the church. In the present group of 100 themes, Tomás Alvarez wishes to create a favorable approach to Teresa's person and a comprehensive reading of her writings.

Avila and Its Surroundings, The Social Classes of Her Time, Environment and Cultural Levels, Contemporary Women, Clergy, Religion, Her Family, Home, Father, Mother and Siblings is a sampling of some of the one hundred themes presented in this book.


 

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Contents

Abbreviations vii I Historical Context
1
The Family Decline 75 The Cultural Level Of The CepedaAhumada Family 79 The Spiritual Life In The Family 83 Carmel Teresas New Home 87
13
Reading And Writing 175 Readings In Her Youth 179 A Friend Of Good Books 183 Introduction To Spanish Spiritual Writers 187 Speaking With T...
41
Time Culture And Social Level 25 7 The Milieu Or Popular Religion 29 8 The Contemporary Clergy 33 9 Teresa In The Sight Of The Spanish Inqui...
45
Teresas Home 47 12 Teresas Father Don Alonso Sanchez De Cepeda 51 13 Teresas Mother 55 14 Teresas Brothers And Sisters 59 15 Teresas Family ...
71
III
87
The Ancestry From Which We Have Come
89
What Is Carmel? 89 Vocation And Entry Into The Incarnation 93 The Monastery Of St Mary Of The Incarnation 97 Carmelite Apprenticeship At Th...
97
54
233
55
237
The Life And The Foundations 265
249
58
253
59
257
60
261
VII
265
The Book Of Her Life And Its Two Redactions 267 Structure And Contents Of The Book 271 Why Anonymity? Is The Life A Secret Book? 275 Th...
271

24
101
25
105
26
106
27
113
28
117
29
121
30
125
IV
129
St Joseph In Avila 139 The First Exit The Carmel Of Medina 143 Duruelo The First Foundation Of 32
135
33
139
34
143
35
149
Teresa And 37
157
A Period Of Hard Trial
165
Teresa Resumes Her Foundations The Last Cycle
169
43
183
44
187
45
191
46
195
47
199
48
205
49
211
50
215
VI
219
Teresa Learns To Write 221 Teresas First Writings 225 The Problem Of The Redaction 229 The Problem Of Style 233 The Persons Ordering The Te...
225
53
229
63
275
64
281
The Autograph And Its Printing 299 The Structure Of The Book Of Her Foundations 303 Doctrinal Digressions In The Foundations
307
The Way Of Perfection And The Interior Castle
311
Autograph And Redactions 313 The Way Of Perfection Composition Of The Book 317 The Plan Of The Way Of Perfection 323 The Lesson Of The ...
317
73
323
74
329
75
333
76
337
77
341
78
345
79
349
The Plan Of The Spiritual Life 349 Sanctity
355
Minor Writings
359
Spiritual Testimonies 361 Meditations On The Song Of Songs 365 Soliloquies 371 The Poetry Of St Teresa 375 Response To A Spiritual Challenge 3...
365
83
371
84
375
85
379
86
383
87
387
On Making The Visitation
393
Diagram 403 X Teresas Spiritual Teaching
409
The Teresian Thought 411 92 Asceticism And Virtues 415 93 Love For One Another 419 94 Teacher Of Prayer 423 95 Life And Mystical Experien...
443
Doctor Of The Church
449
Copyright

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About the author (2011)

 Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada was born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes, 4 Oct., 1582.

She was the third child of Don Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda by his second wife, Doña Beatriz Davila y Ahumada, who died when the saint was in her fourteenth year, Teresa was brought up by her saintly father, a lover of serious books, and a tender and pious mother. After her death and the marriage of her eldest sister, Teresa was sent for her education to the Augustinian nuns at Avila, but owing to illness she left at the end of eighteen months, and for some years remained with her father and occasionally with other relatives, notably an uncle who made her acquainted with the Letters of St. Jerome, which determined her to adopt the religious life, not so much through any attraction towards it, as through a desire of choosing the safest course. Unable to obtain her father's consent she left his house unknown to him on Nov., 1535, to enter the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila, which then counted 140 nuns. The wrench from her family caused her a pain which she ever afterwards compared to that of death. However, her father at once yielded and Teresa took the habit.

After her profession in the following year she became very seriously ill, and underwent a prolonged cure and such unskillful medical treatment that she was reduced to a most pitiful state, and even after partial recovery through the intercession of St. Joseph, her health remained permanently impaired. During these years of suffering she began the practice of mental prayer, but fearing that her conversations with some world-minded relatives, frequent visitors at the convent, rendered her unworthy of the graces God bestowed on her in prayer, discontinued it, until she came under the influence, first of the Dominicans, and afterwards of the Jesuits. Meanwhile God had begun to visit her with "intellectual visions and locutions", that is manifestations in which the exterior senses were in no way affected, the things seen and the words heard being directly impressed upon her mind, and giving her wonderful strength in trials, reprimanding her for unfaithfulness, and consoling her in trouble. Unable to reconcile such graces with her shortcomings, which her delicate conscience represented as grievous faults, she had recourse not only to the most spiritual confessors she could find, but also to some saintly laymen, who, never suspecting that the account she gave them of her sins was greatly exaggerated, believed these manifestations to be the work of the evil spirit. The more she endeavored to resist them the more powerfully did God work in her soul. The whole city of Avila was troubled by the reports of the visions of this nun. It was reserved to St. Francis Borgia and St. Peter of Alcantara, and afterwards to a number of Dominicans (particularly Pedro Ibañez and Domingo Bañez), Jesuits, and other religious and secular priests, to discern the work of God and to guide her on a safe road.

The account of her spiritual life contained in the "Life written by herself" (completed in 1565, an earlier version being lost), in the "Relations", and in the "Interior Castle", forms one of the most remarkable spiritual biographies with which only the "Confessions of St. Augustine" can bear comparison. To this period belong also such extraordinary manifestations as the piercing or transverberation of her heart, the spiritual espousals, and the mystical marriage. A vision of the place destined for her in hell in case she should have been unfaithful to grace, determined her to seek a more perfect life. After many troubles and much opposition St. Teresa founded the convent of Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph at Avila (24 Aug., 1562), and after six months obtained permission to take up her residence there. Four years later she received the visit of the General of the Carmelites, John-Baptist Rubeo (Rossi), who not only approved of what she had done but granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars as well as nuns. In rapid succession she established her nuns at Medina del Campo (1567), Malagon and Valladolid (1568), Toledo and Pastrana (1569), Salamanca (1570), Alba de Tormes (1571), Segovia (1574), Veas and Seville (1575), and Caravaca (1576). In the "Book of Foundations" she tells the storyof these convents, nearly all of which were established in spite of violent opposition but with manifest assistance from above. Everywhere she found souls generous enough to embrace the austerities of the primitive rule of Carmel. Having made the acquaintance of Antonio de Heredia, prior of Medina, and St. John of the Cross, she established her reform among the friars (28 Nov., 1568), the first convents being those of Duruelo (1568), Pastrana (1569), Mancera, and Alcalá de Henares (1570).

A new epoch began with the entrance into religion of Jerome Gratian, inasmuch as this remarkable man was almost immediately entrusted by the nuncio with the authority of visitor Apostolic of the Carmelite friars and nuns of the old observance in Andalusia, and as such considered himself entitled to overrule the various restrictions insisted upon by the general and the general chapter. On the death of the nuncio and the arrival of his successor a fearful storm burst over St. Teresa and her work, lasting four years and threatening to annihilate the nascent reform. The incidents of this persecution are best described in her letters. The storm at length passed, and the province of Discalced Carmelites, with the support of Philip II, was approved and canonically established on 22 June, 1580. St. Teresa, old and broken in health, made further foundations at Villanuava de la Jara and Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Granada (through her assistant the Venerable Anne of Jesus), and at Burgos (1582). She left this latter place at the end of July, and, stopping at Palencia, Valladolid, and Medina del Campo, reached Alba de Torres in September, suffering intensely. Soon she took to her bed and passed away on 4 Oct., 1582, the following day, owing to the reform of the calendar, being reckoned as 15 October. After some years her body was transferred to Avila, but later on reconveyed to Alba, where it is still preserved incorrupt. Her heart, too,showing the marks of the Transverberation,is exposed there to the veneration of the faithful. She was beatified in 1614, and canonized in 1622 by Gregory XV, the feast being fixed on 15 October.

St. Teresa's position among writers on mystical theology is unique. In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly. The Thomistic substratum may be traced to the influence of her confessors and directors, many of whom belonged to the Dominican Order. She herself had no pretension to found a school in the accepted sense of the term, and there is no vestige in her writings of any influence of the Areopagite, the Patristic, or the Scholastic Mystical schools, as represented among others, by the German Dominican Mystics. She is intensely personal, her system going exactly as far as her experiences, but not a step further. 

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