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1000 ampere-hours adduction or oxidation agar agar ampere ampere-hours anode atomic weights called cathode cathode particle cell centimeter change of valence chemical element chemical reaction chemical reduction chemically equivalent chemistry chlorine compound constant copper coulometer corresponding coulombs CuCl2 cuprous chloride deposited determined elec electric current electrochemical calculations electrochemical equivalents electrochemistry Electrolytic Dissociation equation examples faraday Faraday's law ferric ferrous formula weight free or dissolved gases given gram ion gram-atom grams hence hydrogen involved iron J. J. Thomson Manganese means metal molecule multiplied negative charge negative valence nitrate nitric acid nitrogen Non-valent number of atoms number of electrons outer ring oxidation oxygen passed thru peroxide plate platinum positive charge potassium pounds proportion purely chemical calculation quantity of electricity set free silver coulometer solution sulfuric acid surface tion tube unit bond univalent usual vapor volts watt-hours zero valence zinc
Page 57 - I propose to distinguish these bodies by calling those anions\ which go to the anode of the decomposing body ; and those passing to the cathode, cations^ ; and when I have occasion to speak of these together, I shall call them ions. Thus, the chloride of lead is an electrolyte, and when electrolysed evolves the two ions, chlorine and lead — the former being an anion, and the latter a cation.
Page 56 - ... the direction of the current. The term has been generally applied to the metal surfaces in contact with the decomposing substance; but whether philosophers generally would also apply it to the surfaces of air and water, against which I have effected electrochemical decomposition, is subject to doubt. In place of the term pole, I propose using that of electrode*, and I mean thereby that substance, or rather surface, whether of air, water, metal, or any other body, which bounds the extent of the...
Page 56 - I propose using that of electrode (//Ae/fr/oox and odo?, a way), and I mean thereby that substance, or rather surface, whether of air, water, metal, or any other body which bounds the extent of the decomposing matter in the direction of the electric current.
Page 57 - Finally, I require a term to express those bodies which can pass to the electrodes, or, as they are usually called, the poles. Substances are frequently spoken of as being electronegative, or electropositive, according as they go under the supposed influence of a direct attraction to the positive or negative pole. But these terms are much too significant for the use to which I should have to...
Page 56 - ... and is against or opposite the positive electrode. The cathode is that surface at which the current leaves the decomposing body, and is its positive extremity ; the combustible bodies, metals, alkalies, and bases, are evolved there, and it is in contact with the negative electrode.
Page 86 - It is : electrons are atoms of the chemical element, electricity ; they possess mass ; they form compounds with other elements; they are known in the free state, that is, as molecules ; they serve as the " bonds of union
Page 96 - The valence of the atomic weight of an element is the number of atomic weights of hydrogen, or of some other univalent element, which it combines with or displaces.
Page 86 - This sequence of properties is very like that observed in the case of the atoms of the elements. Thus we have the series of elements — He. Li. Be. BCNOF Ne. Ne. Na. Mg. Al. Si. PS Cl. Arg. The first and last element in each of these series has no valency, the second is a monovalent electro-positive element, the last but one...
Page 82 - In a complex atom, built up of simpler systems, the assemblage of positive charges is in many respects similar to the assemblage of electrons which revolve round them, and it is not unlikely that many of the positive charges would also revolve. But they are not all of the same size, although the difference in size is not great. Their mass is so great that a disturbance which could expel one of them from an atom would also expel many of the attendant electrons...
Page v - ... in it, and not as a treatise on electrochemistry in general; sufficient explanatory text has however been added to enable the data to be used for most purposes without the need of a further treatise on the subject. To make the data available also to the student, electroplater, engineer, and others who may not have made a special study of chemistry and electrochemistry, the descriptive text has been given in elementary and easily understood terms.