Stress Ecology: Environmental Stress as Ecological Driving Force and Key Player in Evolution

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Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 2, 2012 - Science - 480 pages

Not all stress is stressful; instead, it appears that stress in the environment, below the mutation threshold, is essential for many subtle manifestations of population structures and biodiversity, and has played a substantial role in the evolution of life. Intrigued by the behavior of laboratory animals that contradicted our current understanding of stress, the author and his group studied the beneficial effects of stress on animals and plants. The seemingly “crazy” animals demonstrated that several stress paradigms are outdated and have to be reconsidered.

The book describes the general stress responses in microorganisms, plants, and animals to abiotic and biotic, to natural and anthropogenic stressors. These stress responses include the activation of oxygen, the biotransformation system, the stress proteins, and the metal-binding proteins. The potential of stress response lies in the transcription of genes, whereas the actual response is manifested by proteins and metabolites. Yet, not all stress responses are in the genes: micro-RNAs and epigenetics play central roles. Multiple stressors, such as environmental realism, do not always act additively; they may even diminish one another. Furthermore, one stressor often prepares the subject for the next one to come and may produce extended lifespans and increased offspring numbers, thus causing shifts in population structures.


This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of the ecological and evolutionary effects of stress.

 

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Contents

Why a Small Worm Is Not Crazy
1
Activation of Oxygen Multipurpose Tool
7
Defense Means Against Pathogens and Parasites Reactive Oxygen Species
47
Arms Race Between Plants and Animals Biotransformation System
61
Heat Shock Proteins The Minimal but Universal Stress Proteome
107
Heavy Metals Defense and Ecological Utilization
131
The Potential of Stress Response Ecological Transcriptomics
160
Not All Is in the Genes
213
Multiple Stressors as Environmental Realism Synergism or Antagonism
295
One Stressor Prepares for the Next One to Come CrossTolerance
310
Longevity Risky Shift in Population Structure?
327
Footprints of Stress in Communities
344
Environmental Stresses Ecological Driving Force and Key Player in Evolution
369
Appendices
387
References
407
Index
461

The Actual Response Ecological Proteomics and Metabolomics
241
Whatever Doesnt Kill You Might Make You Stronger Hormesis
279

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