Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization: Tenth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization
Paul S. Ho, Ehrenfried Zschech, Shinichi Ogawa
American Inst. of Physics, Jul 2, 2009 - Science - 242 pages
Stress-induced voiding and electromigration have emerged to become key reliability problems for submicron interconnect metallization. This has led to the First International Stress Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization held at Cornell University in 1991, and the series has continued to the Tenth Stress Workshop held at The University of Texas at Austin on November 5-7, 2008. This book contains the proceedings of the 10th Stress Workshop. Following the spirit of the previous workshops, this workshop emphasized new research results and advances in basic understanding on stress induced phenomena in metallization. The goal was to provide a forum for exchange of ideas, bringing into focus the technical and scientific issues and identifying needs and directions for future research. This is reflected in the papers included in the proceedings. A number of papers reported results on electromigration and stress-induced void formation in copper low k interconnects using state-of-the-art methods including in-situ transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction. These studies demonstrated the metrology development for studying the stress-induced phenomena in copper interconnect structure at the nanoscale. A new topic on nanostructures and future interconnects has also been included in this workshop.
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Insitu TEM Study of Electromigration in Cu Lines
Dynamical XRay Microscopy Study of StressInduced Voiding in Cu Interconnects
LargeScale Statistics for Cu Electromigration
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activation energy air gaps alloy films analysis annealing annealing at 400°C Applied Physics atoms barrier layers beam behavior bond buckling chip compressive stress Conf copper crackstop critical load Cu(Ti current density curves damascene decrease delamination deposition dielectric layers diffraction diffusion displacement down-flow early failure effect elastic elastic modulus electrical resistivities electromigration electron failure mode Flip Chip fracture grain boundary grain growth IEEE images increase indentation interconnect structure interlayer lifetime line width low-k material measured metal line microconnect Microelectronics microstructure modulus nanoindentation nm lines observed overburden package Phenomena in Metallization Phys Poisson's ratio polyimide Proc reliability resistance shown in Figure shows silicon simulation single link SiNLs SiOC strain stress relaxation Stress-Induced Phenomena substrate surface technique temperature tensile tensile stress test structures thermal stress thick metal thin films Ti-rich interface layers trench vacancy void formation wafer Wheatstone Bridge x-ray Young's modulus Zschech