Structural adjustment and the environment
During the 1980s the World Bank loaned over $28.5 billion for structural adjustment programs in developing countries. Structural Adjustment and the Environment explores the results of these programs and arrives at the disturbing conclusion that structural adjustment lending has failed both to protect the environment and to achieve sustainable development.Drawing on case studies and global analysis, this important book examines the basic philosophy, scope, and objectives of structural adjustment and the ways in which it might contribute to human needs and environmental protection. Concluding that the pursuit of economic growth must be conditioned by environmental objectives, scholars from the World Wide Fund for Nature call for a thorough revision of development policy, including basic institutional change, reforms in lending priorities, and increased democratization of the development process.This is a vital book for activists and scholars in a wide range of disciplines who are concerned with international development and the environment.
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The Structural Adjustment Experience of the 1980s
Turkey The SAL Testing Ground
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adjusting countries adjustment loans agricultural sector areas Bank's cassava changes concession conservation contribution Cote d'Ivoire country's debt decline deficit deforestation demand developing countries distortions economic growth effects efficiency encourage energy prices environment environmental costs environmental damage environmental degradation environmental impacts environmental issues environmental problems exchange rate expansion export taxes external farmers fertilizer fiscal forest land forestry global impacts of adjustment implementation important improve incentives income distribution increased industrial infrastructure inputs institutional International Monetary Fund investment Kuznets curve land tenure logging long-term macroeconomic Maquiladora market failures Mexico models Monetary natural capital natural resource sector negative output overall percent policy reforms political pollution population pressure promote public sector reduced reflect relative restructuring result rice and rubber SALs social soil stabilization structural adjustment policies structural adjustment programs subsidies sustainable development Thailand timber U.S. dollar urban Washington waste World Bank