Structural Adjustment in Africa: Insights from the Experiences of Ghana and Senegal : Report of a Staff Study Mission to Great Britain, Ghana, Senegal, Cot̂e D'ivoire, and France, Nov. 29-Dec. 20, 1988 to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, Volume 4

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989 - Africa - 20 pages
 

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Page 2 - The available evidence strongly suggests that, despite rising per capita, growth, structural adjustment has produced little enduring proverty-alleviation, and certain policies have worked against the poor. In rural Ghana, adjustment has benefited the minority of cocoa farmers, but these gains appear to have mainly gone to a relatively small and privileged group. Real per capita income of the overwhelming majority of food farmers has stagnated, with especially unfavorable consequences for women and...
Page 2 - The immediate reason for this change was the sharp deterioration in the terms of trade of many developing countries, particularly from the second oil shock. As with the Fund, this lending is intended to achieve stabilization ("managed reductions in expenditures to bring about an orderly adjustment of domestic demand to the reduced level of external resources") and structural adjustment ("changes in relative prices and institutions designed to make the economy more efficient, more flexible, and better...
Page 10 - These included approximately 41,000-45,000 "redeployed", ie fired, civil servants (29,000 were dismissed in 1987-88 and the remainder were slated to go in 1989), 20,000 redeployed Cocoa Board employees, 20,000 state enterprise employees threatened with retrenchment over the next two years, and at least hundreds of private sector employees who lost textile and other jobs as a direct result of import liberalization.
Page 4 - Achieve a more efficient allocation of resources to productive sectors by: removing import quotas and high tariffs that shelter uncompetitive firms, implementing the aforementioned export incentives to promote export growth, eliminating or phasing out most price controls and subsidies, and permitting the private sector to run markets previously exploited by inefficient state agencies and to acquire potentially viable stateowned enterprises; (3) Lift the burden of the overdeveloped state on the economy...
Page 3 - Plan, and various donor projects, appear inadequate and have not affected other adjustment policies that are hurting the poor. — In both Ghana and Senegal, a weak equity performance and rising political expectations have generated threats to the sustainability of adjustment and to overall political stability. — Alternatively, the international donors and recipients could modify structural adjustment to fully incorporate poverty-alleviation objectives. Reductions in external and internal deficits...
Page 1 - ... the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and...
Page 3 - Privatization" has not fulfilled its promise due to precipitate and ill-phased implementation. — Among urban Senegalese poverty has clearly been aggravated by such adjustment policies as wage restraint and import liberalization.
Page 18 - As international donors slowly began to pay more attention to poverty-alleviation, their initiatives also suffered from an absence of grass-roots input. For instance, the World Bank's Social...

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