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Why Science Has Not Solved Stuttering
Scientific Theory Criteria
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acoustic anticipatory stuttering articulation articulatory articulatory movements assertiveness conflict assumption auditory feedback auditory system automatic behavior Bloodstein causal cause of stuttering chronic stuttering classically conditioned clinical coarticulation core disruption criterion Curlee Dabul definition of stuttering delay delayed auditory feedback diagnosogenic theory differences discoordinated distal causes dyssynchronous Edward Travis effect empirical evidence experimental explanation fear fluency formulation function genetic Hearing Disorders Hearing Research helplessness hypothesis implies infancy involuntary Johnson Journal of Speech learning linguistic uncertainty listeners loss of control measure methodology nature of stuttering neuropathology nonstuttered disfluency normal disfluency NPL theory observed operant Perkins predictions primary stuttering problem proprioceptive prosody reaction reduced stuttering replication require response Riper scientific self-expressive sound speakers Speech and Hearing speech mechanism Speech Pathology speech rate statistical Stromsta stut stuttering occurs syllable processing syllable-sound disfluency tering tested tion tone of voice transient stuttering Travis utterance valid vocal voice onset voluntary control