Substance et individu dans la philosophie de la connaissance de Leibniz
My thesis deals with several themes related to the concepts of substance and individual in Leibniz's philosophy from an epistemological point of view. Therefore, Leibniz's metaphysics and logics are interpreted by means of the theory of knowledge elaborated at the same time in his work. First, the leibnizian philosophy needs to be determinated in regard of nominalism, a theory in which individuals constitutes the main ontological entities. Secondly, I explain how Leibniz's metaphysics hangs with the rational model of knowledge, which rests on a gradation of notions. Even though the leibnizian epistemology takes over certain aspects of the aristotelician and cartesian traditions, it seemed clear that Leibniz draws an original doctrine of cognition which has a strong impact in metaphysics. Thirdly, I intend to show the implication of the notion of individuality in the realm of empirical knowledge, because the explanation of phenomena becomes an important complement to leibnizian ontology of substance. The problems of identification et distinction of contingent realities are explained to precise the nature of experience and it consequences in the perception of individual things. Finally, the study of abstraction and classification processes conclude this examine of Leibniz's philosophy. This work consists in valorizing the leibnizian epistemology as a original contribution to the interpretation of this philosophy.
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