Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context and Meaning in Qawwali, Volume 1

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CUP Archive, 1986 - Music - 265 pages
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For the Sufis of India and Pakistan, the Qawwali songs are 'food for the soul', a means of attaining union with God, the ecstatic culmination of mystical experience. Regula Burckhardt Qureshi's study carefully describes and documents the performance of this music in the traditional Sufi assembly, the ritual of sama', first presenting the rich musical repertoire of Qawwali song, and then exploring everything else that is relevant to an understanding of the ritual: the profound belief system and its powerful articulation through mystical poetry in three languages (Farsi, Hindi, Urdu), the social and economic relationships between Sufi listeners and musicians, and, finally, all the specific rules governing the making of and listening to Qawwali in the Sufi assembly. All this leads up to a moment-by-moment account of actual Qawwali performances where the interplay between the musical sound and the diverse and often dramatic audience responses is described and analysed by the author.
 

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Qawwali is a powerful source for the overhauling of a untidy soul

Contents

Tomb of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya
2
Qawwali in the Nizamuddin Auliya shrine
3
Analytical model
11
Qawwali music
17
Musical categories
47
Pitch structure
48
Qawwali tonal inventory
49
tonal centre and register
50
Classical Sufi attire
115
Standard performance format
116
The saints spiritual genealogy shijrd
117
Standard gesture of intensification
118
Framework of spiritual arousal
119
Categories of expressive responses
121
Link response
123
A devotee bows to make an offering
124

directionality and parallelism
51
Raga settings in Qawwali
52
Durational analysis
54
Formal structure analysis
55
Asthdyi and antard sections with extensions
56
melodic and rhythmic equivalence
57
Functional constraints and distinctive features
59
Arousal through emphatic stress pattern
60
Poetic metre represented in tune rhythm
61
Poetic form and metre represented by melodic phrasing and contour
63
Manipulability of small units
64
Manipulability of large units
65
item of performance
66
standard repeat unit
67
Adjunct items Rubai and Girah
68
standard repeat unit
69
sequencing principles
70
application of directional melodic adjustment
71
application of directional melodic movement
72
Song structure in performance
73
the Qawwali occasion
77
Engraved tablet in the Nizamuddin shrine
80
the Chishti Silsild
81
Farsi poetic expression
84
Hindi poetic expression
85
verse structure and rhyme scheme
87
Qawwali poetic metre
89
Pirzdde watching the tomb
94
Qazi Safdar Ali
95
Meraj Ahmad offers greeting
97
The Qawwal Bachches record book oimohtdd
99
Qawwals house
101
royal court of saints
106
Categories of participants
109
Setting categories
110
Layout plan and seating arrangement
113
The assembly leader turns over the offering
126
The Qawwals pickup man deposits the offering
127
the Qawwali event
133
A rupee note about to be transformed from offering to pay
138
Family visit at Merajs house
142
Videorecording the Chilla Mahfil
143
Qawwals awaiting the Chilla Mahfil
146
The leading Sufis of the Chilla assembly
147
Directional melodic movement applied in performance
166
Extra verse line suggested by listener
180
Sophisticated versus popular rhythm
188
Music variables as affected by setting variables
194
Performance process in outline
197
Effectively connecting opening with concluding line
198
Repetition using rhythmically denser alternatives
199
Repetition including takrdr phrase
200
Takrdr repetition of a girah recitative
202
Melodic improvisation to increase anticipation during antard
203
evaluation of context
209
audience categories
210
expression in music
211
Application of status referent
213
Application of identity referent
214
evaluation of context
217
expression in music
218
evaluation of context
220
expression in music
221
evaluation of context
224
context input summarized
226
sequencing process summarized
227
Conclusion
228
Notes
234
Glossary
242
Oral sources
257
Index
263
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