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A Misguided Debate About Afﬁrmative Action?
The Supreme Courts Role in the Growing School Choice Movement
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academic achievement gaps Adarand Constructors afﬁrmative action African American argued argument Bakke behavior beneﬁts black students Bollinger Brown Califomia Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools civil rights classroom colleges and universities compelling interest concem constitutional context critical mass decision desegregation difﬁcult dissenting durational limits enrollment equal opportunity Equal Protection Clause ﬁle ﬁnd ﬁndings ﬁrst ﬁve govemment grade groups Grutter Grutter and Gratz harm high school higher education Hispanics identiﬁed individual inﬂuence institutions Justice O’Connor Latino law school Michigan minority students narrowly tailored ofﬁcials Plessy Prof of Law public schools race preferences race-conscious admissions racial and ethnic racial classiﬁcations racial composition racial preferences racial segregation racially equal racially integrated reﬂect remedy SAT scores school choice school desegregation school discipline school districts segregation signiﬁcant social speciﬁc strict scrutiny student body students of color supra note Supreme Court teachers test scores track twenty-ﬁve year expectation voluntary integration plans