Systematics and evolution of Littorina, Issue 164
Snails belonging to the genus Littorina are the familiar periwinkles found on rocky sea shores throughout Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Siberia and Japan. Although common and intensively studied, new discoveries over the last three decades have revolutionized knowledge of these animals.
Shells of Littorina are remarkable for their extreme variation in shape and colour, which has led to considerable taxonomic controversy. In this volume the complex taxonomy is revised, based on original anatomical studies and recent genetic research. Detailed descriptions of all 19 living and additional fossil species are illustrated by two colour plates, 63 black-and-white plates of shells and radulae, 24 pages of anatomical drawings and 19 distribution maps. The previously bewildering diversity of the shells is resolved to reveal simple, repeated patterns of intraspecific variability. These are explained in terms of life history and gene flow, adaptation to selection by predators and the physical environment, and ecophenotypic influences.
Using information from the cladistic analysis of morphological characters, from the fossil record, and from published work on allozyme frequencies and DNA sequences, a detailed species-level phylogeny has been reconstructed. This, together with distributional and ecological data, reveals likely mechanisms of speciation and morphological adaptation. It is shown that the evolutionary radiation occurred largely in the northern Pacific Ocean, and that invasion of the Atlantic took place following the trans-Arctic biotic interchange during the late Pliocene.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
4 other sections not shown
albumen gland aleutica allozyme anatomical aperture arcana Atlantic barnacle barnacle ecotype benthic BMNH brevicula capsule gland characters clade coast colour compressa cusps Dautzenberg & Fischer distribution ecotype eulittoral fabalis Fischer-Piette & Gaillard Fretter gene flow genetic geog geographical Golikov & Kusakin Grahame & Mill groove habitat Hannaford Ellis Hokkaido holotype ICZN includes infrasubspecific Island Janson jelly gland Johannesson kasatka keenae Kurile Kurile Islands lectotype Linnaeus littoralis littorea Littorina Littorina Littorina Neritrema Littorina obtusata Littorina saxatilis Littorina species mamilliform mandshurica Middendorff moderate ecotype morphological morphs natica Nodilittorina nonplanktotrophic northern occur oviduct ovoviviparous pallial oviduct pelagic penial penis Philippi phylogenetic planktotrophic Pleistocene plena Pliocene polymorphism populations protoconch radula Raffaelli range Reid ribs Sacchi saxatilis group sculpture scutulata selection shell form shell height shell shape sheltered/brackish ecotype sitkana spawn speciation specimens spiral spire squalida striata subrotundata sympatric synapomorphies Synonymy Taxonomic Turbo variable variation Warmoes wave-exposed ecotype whorl