Tales of two cities: race and economic culture in early republican North and South America : Guayaquil, Ecuador, and Baltimore, Maryland
The United States and the countries of Latin America were all colonized by Europeans, yet in terms of economic development, the U.S. far outstripped Latin America beginning in the nineteenth century. Observers have often tried to account for this disparity, many of them claiming that differences in cultural attitudes toward work explain the U.S.'s greater prosperity. In this innovative study, however, Camilla Townsend challenges the traditional view that North Americans succeeded because of the so-called Protestant work ethic and argues instead that they prospered relative to South Americans because of differences in attitudes towards workers that evolved in the colonial era. Townsend builds her study around workers' lives in two similar port cities in the 1820s and 1830s. Through the eyes of the young Frederick Douglass in Baltimore, Maryland, and an Indian girl named Ana Yagual in Guayaquil, Ecuador, she shows how differing attitudes towards race and class in North and South America affected local ways of doing business. This empirical research clarifies the significant relationship between economic culture and racial identity and its long-term effects.
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Actas de Cabildo Almshouse American Ana Yagual apprentices April artisans Balti Baltimore County Baltimore Gazette Baltimoreans bank became began boats British cacao church citizens City Council Correspondence city's clothing colonial craftsmen Daily Advertiser day laborers December demand document economic culture Ecuador elite ep/j example February Fell's Point Fondo Frederick Bailey free blacks Gazette and Daily Gran Colombia groups Guayaquilefios Guayas Guayas River Hispanic Historia Hollingsworth Indians indigenous investment January January 14 Jose Julio Estrada later least letters lived majority manufactories Maria Maryland master mestizos middling sorts month municipal newspapers owners paid paper Patriota de Guayaquil percent person pesos political poor port profits Quito quotation records Reports and Returns savanna schools sell ship slaves social Society Spanish streets tion town trade wealthy women workers wrote young zambo