Tall Building Criteria and Loading

Front Cover
Leslie E. Robertson, Takeo Naka
ASCE Publications, Jan 1, 1980 - Technology & Engineering - 900 pages
2 Reviews

Prepared by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat of ASCE.

This report examines the loads to which tall buildings are subjected so that engineers can precisely define the related structural elements that are necessary before translating a client's needs into a safe design. The report explores five different classes of loads?gravity loads and temperature affects, earthquake loads, wind loading and wind effects, fire, and accidental loads?as well as quality control and overall safety considerations.ěSteel buildings, which hold the record for height, tax the designer's ingenuity to provide adequate resistance to lateral loading. Concrete buildings are both more numerous and widely distributed, and for them vertical gravity loads may be the chief problem. Both steel and concrete buildings and lateral and vertical loads are addressed. Other subjects covered include: dead, live, cyclic snow, construction, and combined loads; code requirements; meteorological and environmental factors in design; firefighting provisions; and modeling.

Contributions came from more than 800 contributors, all international and professional and heavily representing design and industrial firms. Condensed references follow each chapter, and a glossary is included.

 

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Contents

412 EXAMPLES OF FIRES IN TALL BUILDINGS
343
2 World Trade Center New York USA
345
4 Andraus Building Sao Paulo Brazil
348
5 One New York Plaza New York USA
349
6 919 Third Avenue Building New York USA
350
7 Hawthorne House Chicago USA
351
8 Rault Center New Orleans USA
352
9 Baptist Towers Housing for the Elderly Atlanta USA
353

4 Noise and Vibration Problems
21
1 Snow Loading
22
2 Temperature Effects
24
16 CONSTRUCTION LOADS
30
17 COMBINED LOADING
34
2 Limit States Design Method
36
18 LOAD SURVEYS AND STATISTICAL EVALUATION
37
1 Survey Results
39
2 Conclusions on Load Surveys
42
19 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
43
Earthquake Loading and Response
45
21 INTRODUCTION
47
2 Dynamic Characteristics of SoilStructure Systems
48
3 Analysis of Dynamic Response
49
4 Observation of Structural Behavior
50
5 Evaluation of Earthquake Damage
51
6 Economic and Social Aspects
52
7 Code Requirements
53
22 EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION
54
1 Nature of Ground Shaking Generated by Fault
56
2 Intensity Epicenter Magnitude
57
3 Influence of Geology on Seismic Waves
58
4 Duration of Strong Earthquake Motion
60
5 Response Spectra of Ground Motions
61
6 Estimating Future Ground Motions
62
23 DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILSTRUCTURE SYSTEMS
70
1 Effects of Soil on Dynamic Response of Buildings
71
2 Evaluation of SoilStructure Interaction Effects
72
3 Methods of Determining the Effect of Soil Conditions on Ground Motion Characteristics
74
4 Conclusion
81
24 ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC RESPONSE
83
1 Types of Tall Buildings
88
2 Behavior of Tall Buildings
89
4 Components of Motion
94
5 Idealized Inelastic Systems
98
7 The Reserve Energy Technique
99
9 Probabilistic Models
100
25 OBSERVATION OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR
101
1 Static Laboratory Studies
102
2 Dynamic Laboratory Studies
103
3 Static Field Studies
105
4 Dynamic Field Studies
106
26 EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
110
1 Performance of Buildings During Earthquakes
111
2 Conclusions
119
1 Seismic Risk
121
3 Damage Probabilities
124
4 Vibration Hazard and Perception
125
5 Present Needs
128
28 CODE REQUIREMENTS
129
1 Base Shear Coefficients and Lateral Seismic Coefficients
130
2 Vertical Forces
135
3 Control of Lateral Deflections and Separation of Buildings
136
6 Allowable Stress
137
29 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
138
Wind Loading and Wind Effects
143
31 INTRODUCTION
145
32 DESIGN PROBLEMS AND CRITERIA
146
2 Response to Wind Action
147
3 Progression Towards Collapse of Structural Frame in Wind
148
4 Excessive Deflections and Damage to Architectural Finishes
151
5 Cladding and Glass DesignStack Effect Internal Pressures
152
7 Wind in Pedestrian Areas
155
8 Other Problems
157
33 METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE DESIGN OF TALL BUILDINGS
159
2 Properties of the Mean Wind
161
3 Change of Terrain Roughness
163
5 Climatological Properties of Wind
167
6 Turbulence Structure
172
34 WIND LOADING MECHANISM AND FULLSCALE EXAMPLES
177
2 AlongWind and CrossWind Response
179
3 Torsional Response
183
4 Cladding Pressures on Tall Buildings
184
35 ANALYTICAL APPROACHES TO ESTIMATION OF LOAD AND RESPONSE
187
1 AlongWind
188
2 Analysis of Acceleration Comfort Criteria
198
4 Design Pressure for Glass and Cladding
200
36 WIND TUNNEL MODELING APPROACHES TO DESIGN
201
1 Types of Wind Tunnel Tests
202
3 Natural Wind Models
204
4 Aeroelastic Models
207
5 Pressure Measurements on Models
211
6 Ground Level Wind Distributions
212
7 Dispersal of Gaseous Pollutants
213
8 Wind Tunnel Test Expectations
216
37 INTEGRATION OF RESPONSE AND WIND DATA FOR DESIGN PURPOSES
217
2 Prediction of Numbers of Occurrences
222
3 Prediction of Horizontal Accelerations Affecting Human Comfort
223
38 ENVIRONMENTAL WIND FLOWS AROUND BUILDINGS
227
2 Environmental Wind Speed Criteria
229
3 Prediction of Wind Environment Around a Building
233
4 Guidelines for Avoiding High Induced Wind Speeds at Ground Level
237
39 CODE DESIGN
239
310 CONCLUDING REMARKS
241
311 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
242
Fire
249
41 INTRODUCTION
251
42 NATURAL FIRES STANDARD FIRES AND FIRE LOADS
253
2 Fully Developed Building Fires
255
3 Fire Loads
258
2 Steel Structures
262
REQUIREMENTS AND QUALITY CONTROL
271
2 Material Characteristics
272
3 Suggestions for Improved Reliability of Protection
273
45 NONSTRUCTURAL PROTECTION
275
2 Smoke Control
278
3 Panic Reaction
296
46 ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS
306
3 Construction Details
308
4 Security Considerations
309
2 Communications
311
4 Movement of Occupants to Safe Areas
314
5 Control of Flow of Smoke and Hot Gases
316
6 Concluding Remarks
317
1 Assembly Occupancies
318
3 Health Care Institutional Occupancies
319
4 Residential Occupancies
320
5 Mercantile Occupancies
321
7 Industrial Occupancies
322
9 Buildings under Construction
323
49 PROVISIONS FOR FIRE FIGHTING
324
2 Access to Fire
325
3 Communications
326
6 Standpipes
327
7 Stair Door Unlocking Systems
328
10 Use of Helicopters
329
2 How the System Operates
332
3 Application
336
411 ANALYSIS AND REPAIR OF FIRE DAMAGE
339
2 Steel Structures
341
10 Joelma Building Sao Paulo Brazil
354
11 Sennichi Building Osaka Japan
355
413 PHILOSOPHY OF RISKS AND ACCEPTABLE DAMAGE
362
1 Basic Principles
363
2 Evaluation
367
FIRE DRILL
379
415 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
386
Accidental Loading
391
51 INTRODUCTION
393
52 LOADS
395
2 Resulting Loads on Buildings and Structural Elements
401
3 Impact Loads
403
4 Sonic Boom
405
53 FREQUENCIES OF OCCURRENCE OF LOADS
406
3 External Blast due to Gaseous Explosions
409
5 General
410
2 Damage by HighExplosive Blast
411
3 Damage by Internal Blast due to Gaseous Explosions
417
4 Damage by External Blast due to Gaseous Explosions
422
5 Damage by Impact and Other Accidents
423
1 Responses to Loads Varying in a Known Manner
424
2 Responses to Loads Whose Variation with Time Is Unknown
428
56 POSSIBILITIES OF REDUCING HAZARDS
430
1 HighExplosive Blast
431
3 External Blast due to Gaseous Explosions
433
4 Impact
434
2 Local Loads
435
58 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
437
Quality Criteria
439
61 INTRODUCTION
441
2 Contract Documents Criteria and Quality Control
444
3 Quality Control Personnel
445
4 Material Selection
446
6 Field Construction
447
7 Record Keeping
449
3 Tension Test Properties
454
4 Residual Stresses
457
5 CrossSectional Properties
462
7 Lamellar Tearing
465
63 CONCRETE
467
2 Quality of Pumped Concrete
477
3 Factors Influencing Quality of HighStrength Concrete
479
4 Quality of Precast Concrete
486
5 Quality of CastinPlace Concrete
488
6 Quality of Reinforcing Steel Placement
490
7 Formwork
492
9 Project Supervision and Coordination
497
64 QUALITY OF CONCRETE MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
498
2 Testing of Masonry Units Mortar Grout and Assemblages
502
3 Field Inspection
507
65 ENGINEERED BRICK MASONRY
508
1 Prism Tests Versus Brick Tests
509
2 Compression Testing Large Size Structural Brick
511
3 Absorption
512
4 Mortar Testing
513
5 Flexural Bond Strength
514
6 Quality of Mortar and Grout
516
7 Summary
518
2 Effect of Support Conditions
521
3 Effect of Impact and Other Accidental Loads
522
4 Effect of Surface Conditions
523
5 Probability Concepts
524
6 Engineering Considerations
525
7 Solar Considerations
529
9 Conclusion
530
68 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
531
Structural Safety and Probabilistic Methods
535
71 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES
537
2 Preliminary Remarks
538
3 Present Practice
539
4 Information Needed for Improved Safety Analyses and Specifications
540
5 Safety and Serviceability Analyses
542
6 Summary
543
1 One Variable Problems
544
2 Two Variable Problems
546
3 Equations and AlgorithmsUncertainties
548
4 General Uncertainty Analysis
551
73 CODE SPECIFICATION OF SAFETY AND SERVICEABILITY
552
2 Existing Types of Building Codes
555
3 The Additive F 1 Format
561
4 FirstOrder SecondMoment Format
562
5 Examples of Semiprobabilistic and Probabilistic Design
565
6 Examples of Reliability Optimization
568
7 A Strategy
571
8 Special Features of Tall Buildings
572
9 Summary and Conclusions
574
74 THE MODELING OF STRUCTURAL ACTIONS
575
1 Risk
576
2 Socioeconomic Optimization
580
3 Activities
583
5 Conclusion
585
75 LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS
587
2 Physical Characteristics of Loadings
588
3 Deterministic Representation of Loadings
590
4 Random Nature of Loadings
592
5 Probabilistic Representation of Loadings
593
6 Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Loads
595
7 Loading Distribution and Probabilities of Damage
596
8 Lack of Information on Loadings
597
9 Some Aspects Introduced by Tall Buildings
598
76 SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TALL BUILDINGS
599
1 Some Further Reliability Problems
600
2 Models of High Reliability Analysis
601
3 Models of Medium Reliability Analysis
609
77 PRESENT AND FUTURE OF PROBABILISTIC METHODS
612
1 Safety Analysis for Tall Buildings
613
2 Analysis of Uncertainty
614
3 Actions and Their Models
615
4 System Reliability
621
5 Reliability Level Decisions
627
6 Codified Safety Recommendations
629
7 Concluding Remarks
634
78 PROBABILISTIC CONCEPTS AND DESIGN PRACTICE
635
2 Design Parameters and Safety Levels
636
3 Member and System Reliability
637
79 APPENDIX
638
3 Moments of Functions
639
710 CONDENSED REFERENCESBIBLIOGRAPHY
640
Current Questions Problems and Research Needs
645
Nomenclature
651
SYMBOLS
663
ABBREVIATIONS
670
UNITS
672
ReferencesBibliography
675
Contributors
765
Building Index
771
Name Index
773
Subject Index
785
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