Technological change: the role of scientists and engineers
The first recorded government inquiry into shortages of scientists and engineers in the UK took place in 1852. Since then, the issue has recurred time and time again. A recent example was the Finniston Report, 1980. Much of this debate generated considerable heat but little light because of a lack of detailed statistical evidence about the contributions made by professional scientists and engineers (PSEs) to production and growth. This book is the result of over two years research involving a major survey of UK companies by three researchers who are experts in the fields of both the economics of education and the economics of technological change. The results highlight the role of PSEs in the dynamics for technological and organisational change. The results of the survey should prove helpful to academics and policy makers not only in ensuring that appropriate numbers and qualities of PSEs are produced, but that existing individuals are fully utilised.
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Survey design and data collection
List of tables and figures
Employment structure and the labour market
4 other sections not shown
20 per cent advanced technologies areas average number capacity capacity utilization cell cent of companies companies reporting company performance compared dynamic performance economic climate employ graduates employ PSEs employees employment of graduates engineering and technology evidence FAME database foreign companies foreign-owned companies formal qualifications graduates and PSEs graduates in R&D graduates or PSEs indicate industry interview Investment in technology labour market less limiting factor lower managers manufacturing multisite companies Nevertheless number of companies number of technologies oversampling particular percentage points performance of companies problems production professional scientists profit maximization profits and turnover proportion of companies proportions of graduates PSEs in R&D R&D activities R&D department recruitment difficulties registration numbers sample numbers sampling frame Schumpeterian scientists and engineers self-made single site companies strategies structure subsidiaries Table target technical background technologies reporting technology for administration Total number type of company UK companies workforce