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absorption active atom amplitude appears approximation atomic system average beam blackbody calculation cavity classical Cohen-Tannoudji coherence collision kernel commute components consider contribution cooling correlation corresponding Coulomb gauge coupling damping density density matrix described detection diamagnetic dipole Dirac discussion distribution effective Hamiltonian eigenstates electric field electron emitted equation excitation experimental experiments expression frequency function interaction ionization ions kinetic energy laser Lett linear magnetic field manifold matrix elements Maxwell Maxwell equations mode momentum motion nonrelativistic nutation observed operators optical oscillation particles Penning trap perturbation photoionization photons Phys physical polarization potential problem processes quantized quantum mechanics quantum number Rabi nutation radiation field radiative corrections regime relativistic relaxation reservoir resonance fluorescence Rydberg atoms self-reaction shift signal spectroscopy spectrum spin spontaneous emission superradiance symmetrical term theory thermal trajectories transition transverse field trap two-level atom vacuum fluctuations valid vector velocity wave width Zeeman effect zero