## Textbook on Spherical AstronomyThis well-established textbook gives a general but comprehensive introduction to positional astronomy. Originally based on the author's lecture courses at Cambridge University, it is intended primarily for undergraduates, but, due to its comprehensive nature, it is a very useful reference text for research workers in many branches of astronomy and space physics. The author considers the night sky as the celestial sphere and powerfully exploits the methods of spherical geometry. Most problems in which the precise determination of a heavenly body's position in the sky is important are considered in theoretical detail, and the necessary formulae are derived to a precision that is sufficient for all but the most specialist purposes. The present revision has ensured that the terminology and treatment correspond precisely to current astronomical practice. A guiding principle has been to re-establish compatibility with the Astronomical Ephemeris and, to a lesser extent, with the fuller explanations of the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Ephemeris and the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. Fairly frequent comments added to the text indicate the sometimes modified relevance of the subject matter to modern astronomy. A number of additional exercises help to illustrate the new material. |

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### Contents

CHAPTER | 1 |

The Celestial Sphere | 25 |

Rate of change of zenith distance and azimuth 33 Twilight Exercise | 32 |

CHAPTER | 58 |

The laws of refraction 35 Refraction for small zenith distances | 70 |

CHAPTER VI | 136 |

Planetary Phenomena and Heliographic Coordinates | 160 |

Photographic observations of minor planets and comets | 170 |

Definition of proper motion 145 Relation between proper motion | 257 |

Astronomical Photography | 278 |

The photographic refractor 159 The tangent plane 160 Standard | 297 |

Determination of Position at Sea | 314 |

CHAPTER XIV | 340 |

Visual binary stars 188 The micrometer 189 The elements of | 346 |

CHAPTER XV | 368 |

Ocoultations and Eclipses 368 | 387 |

CHAPTER VIII | 178 |

Parallax | 195 |

motions ICapteyns method 172 The reduction of relative to absolute | 223 |

CHAPTER X | 226 |

CHAPTER XI | 249 |

The Method of Dependences | 404 |

Stellar Magnitudes | 414 |

APPENDIX A Astronomical Constants | 420 |

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### Common terms and phrases

aberration almanacs altitude apparent ascension and declination assume astronomical astronomical units axes azimuth Besselian calculated celestial sphere circle arc collimation comparison stars components of proper Consider constant corresponding cos2 cosec defined derived determined direction displacement earth earth's orbit eccentric anomaly ecliptic Ephemeris epoch equatorial error expressed in seconds formula geocentric given Greenwich heavenly body heliocentric Hence horizon hour angle instant interval kilometres per second known latitude longitude mean co-ordinates mean equator mean equinox mean solar mean sun method minutes of arc moon node nutation obliquity observed obtain parallel perpendicular photographic plate pole position angle precession proper motion quantities radial velocity reference refraction respectively right ascension rotation seconds of arc semi-major axis sidereal Similarly sin2 small circle solar motion spherical triangle standard co-ordinates star's sun's suppose tangent plane telescope transit vernal equinox write zenith distance