The A to Z of Existentialism
Existentialism is the philosophy of human existence, which flourished first in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and then in France in the decade following the end of World War II. The operative meaning of existentialism here is thus broader than it was circa 1945 when the term first gained currency in France as a label for the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. However, it is considerably less broad than the view proposed by commentators in the 1950s and 1960s who, in an attempt to overcome Sartre's hegemony, discovered the seeds of existentialism far and wide: in Shakespeare, Saint Augustine, and the Old Testament prophets. In this dictionary, existentialism is understood as a decidedly 20th-century phenomenon, though with roots in the 19th century. Effort has been made to understand the philosophy of existentialism, as all philosophies should be understood, as part of an ongoing intellectual tradition: an evolving history of problems, concepts, and arguments.
The A to Z of Existentialism explains the central claims of existentialist philosophy and the contexts in which it developed into one of the most influential intellectual trends of the 20th century. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and more than 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries offering clear, accessible accounts of the life and thought of major existentialists like Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, as well as thinkers influential to its development such as Wilhelm Dilthey, Henri Bergson, Edmund Husserl, and Max Scheler. This book affords readers an integrated, critical, and historically-sensitive understanding of this important philosophical movement.
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absurd Albert Camus alienation analysis anxiety authentic awareness being-in-the-world Bergson Camus's choice Christian commitment communist conception concern concrete consciousness critical critique Dasein death degger developed dialectical Dilthey Edmund Husserl essence essential ethical exis existen existentialism existentialist philosophy experience expression faith France freedom French philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche G. W. F. Hegel Gabriel Marcel German guilt historical human existence idea idealism inauthenticity individual intellectual interpretation istentialism Jaspers's Jean-Paul Sartre Karl Jaspers lecture Levinas literature losophy Martin Buber Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger's Marx Marxism Maurice Merleau-Ponty meaning mental metaphysical moral nature Nazi Nietzsche's nihilism Nothingness novel object one’s oneself ontological Paris perceived person perspective phenomenology philoso philosophy of existence political possibilities psychology published relation religious Sartre's sense Simone de Beauvoir situation social Søren Kierkegaard Temps modernes theory things thinkers thought tialist tion traditional transcendent Translated truth understanding University Wilhelm Dilthey Worldviews writings