The Academic Revolution
The Academic Revolution describes the rise to power of professional scholars and scientists, first in America's leading universities and now in the larger society as well. Without attempting a full-scale history of American higher education, it outlines a theory about its development and present status. It is illustrated with firsthand observations of a wide variety of colleges and universities the country over-colleges for the rich and colleges for the upwardly mobile; colleges for vocationally oriented men and colleges for intellectually and socially oriented women; colleges for Catholics and colleges for Protestants; colleges for blacks and colleges for rebellious whites.
The authors also look at some of the revolution's consequences. They see it as intensifying conflict between young and old, and provoking young people raised in permissive, middle-class homes to attacks on the legitimacy of adult authority. In the process, the revolution subtly transformed the kinds of work to which talented young people aspire, contributing to the decline of entrepreneurship and the rise of professionalism. They conclude that mass higher education, for all its advantages, has had no measurable effect on the rate of social mobility or the degree of equality in American society.
Jencks and Riesman are not nostalgic; their description of the nineteenth-century liberal arts colleges is corrosively critical. They maintain that American students know more than ever before, that their teachers are more competent and stimulating than in earlier times, and that the American system of higher education has brought the American people to an unprecedented level of academic competence. But while they regard the academic revolution as having been an historically necessary and progressive step, they argue that, like all revolutions, it can devour its children. For Jencks and Riesman, academic professionalism is an advance over amateur gentility, but they warn of its dangers and limitations: the elitism and arrogance implicit in meritocracy, the myopia that derives from a strictly academic view of human experience and understanding, the complacency that comes from making technical competence an end rather than a means.
Christopher Jencks is Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He is the author of Rethinking Social Policy: Race, Poverty and the Underclass, The Homeless, and co-editor of The Black-White Text Score Gap.
David Riesman is Henry Ford II Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Harvard University. He is the author of Thorstein Veblen, Abundance for What, The Lonely Crowd, and Variety in American Education.
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The Spread of Meritocratic Institutions
The Rise of the University
The University College
Academic Agegrading Yesterday and Today
The Role of Student Subcultures
The Adult Backlash and the Safe Colleges
Education versus Certification
Admissions Requirements in the Public and Private Sectors
College Imagery and SelfImagery
The Rise of Coeducation
The Womens Colleges
Diversity Separatism and the Founding of New Colleges
Natural Selection and Evolution among Denominational Colleges
The Holdouts Face the Future
Social Stratification in America
Cultural Stratification in America
The Emergence of Mass Higher Education
Higher Education as a Social Sieve
Mobility or Equality?
IV Nationalism versus Localism
The Early Localists
The Rise of National Professions
Politics Taxes and Localism
Localism Pluralism and Meritocracy
Localism and Commuting
Geographic Dispersion and Community Development
Age and Sponsorship in Nationalization
Professionalism and Its Consequences
Graduate Schools of Arts and Sciences
the PublicPrivate Controversy The Bifurcation of Higher Education
The Financing of Public and Private Colleges
Catholicism in America
The Control of Catholic Colleges
Clerical versus Lay Models
The Future of the Catholic Colleges
Negroes in America
The Evolution of the Negro Colleges
The Fruits of Oppression
The Future of the Private Negro Colleges
Alternatives for the Private Negro Colleges
The Future of the Public Negro Colleges
Conclusion and Postscript
XL The AntiUniversity Colleges
The Community College Movement
The General Education Movement
Other NonAcademic Professions and Organizations
The Pitfalls of Nostalgia
Starting at the Top
Pure versus Applied Work
The Need for More Mobility and Anarchy
The Art of Teaching
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academic profession administrators adult alumni American aptitude attend become better Boston College campus career Catholic colleges Census cent Church coeducational colonial colleges community colleges competence course cultural economic efforts elite engineering enrollment established ethnic example faculty families feel four-year freshmen grades graduate schools graduate students Harvard high school higher education important income increase intellectual interest Jesuits junior colleges less liberal arts colleges major medical schools meritocratic middle class mobility nineteenth century non-Catholic Nonetheless occupational over-all parents perhaps political private colleges private Negro colleges probably problems profes professional schools professors programs proportion Protestant colleges Protestantism public colleges reason recruit relatively religious residential college role scholars scholarships sciences sector secular seems sex segregation social social classes sort subculture teachers teaching tion traditional tuition undergraduate universities upper-middle class usually white colleges women women's colleges World War II young
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The Contradictory College: The Conflicting Origins, Impacts, and Futures of ...
Kevin J. Dougherty
No preview available - 1994