The Amanita Caesarea-Complex
A rather extensive study of more than 240 herbarium collections from the Amanita caesarea-complex from Mexico, the Eastern U.S.A., Canada, Europe, Africa, and Asia provided the basis of the present work. Amanita caesarea and A. hemibapha, both sensu auct., are misidentifications of several species. Amanita caesarea s. qtr. is unknown in the U.S.A. and Canada, but it grows in Mexico, although it is a rare fungus. Amanita hemibapha s. qtr. is unknown in America. All the Mexican species of this complex have a great traditional and economic importance as foodstuff, also in Guatemala. A list of more than 60 common names in Mexico and Guatemala is provided, several of them in Indian languages. A critical revision of taxonomic features is discussed. Color, form, and striation of pileus and length, color and desquamation of the stipe are the main macroscopic features, and spore size, and subhymenium sickness are among the main microscopic features. The A. caesarea-complex belongs to Section Caesareae and is formed by at least 13 species. This complex is divided in Stirps Caesareae (with A. caesarea s. qtr. as the type) and Stirps Hemibaphae (with A. hemibapha as the type), according to the thickness of the subhymenium (3-5 cells thick in the former and 1-3 cells in the latter). Species in the Stirps Caesareae here described besides A. caesarea are: A. basil sp. nov., A. tecomate sp. nov., A. tullossii sp. nov., and A. yema sp. nov. Species in the Stirps Hemibaphae here discussed are: A. arkansana, A. caesareoides, A. hemibapha, A. jacksonii, A. Iaurae sp. nov. A. mafingensis, A. masasiensis, and A. tanzanica, of which A. jacksonii and A. Iaurae are full described. A key with all these taxa is presented.
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Agaricales Amanita caesarea Amanita considered Amanita hemibapha Amanita jacksonii Amanita laurae Amanita yema annulus arkansana Bandala Basidia basidioma basidiomata basii brownish caesarea-complex caesareoides cells thick Cerro Chacon cheilocystidia Cifuentes Clamp connections color complex concolorous convex Corner and Bas DAOM desquamation discussion Eastern U.S.A. elements ellipsoid ENCB FCME Figs fungi fungus Guatemala Guzman Guzman-Davalos Habitat and distribution Harkonen Herb herbarium Herrera Hidalgo holotype Hongo hyaline hyaline hyphae hymenium hymenium and subhymenium hyphae IBUG iim wide Indian language inner surface ixocutis July July 13 July 24 Lamellae lobules mafingensis margin masasiensis materials Mexican Mexico and Guatemala MEXU Montoya Morelos Municipio mushrooms Oleiferous hyphae orange pale Perez-Silva Pileipellis pileus piriform Pomerleau popular market Puebla reddish scale bar Sept Singer smooth Spanish Species of Amanita specimens stipe Stirps Caesareae Stirps Hemibaphae striated Tanzania Tulloss tullossii umbonate Veracruz Villarreal volva Wasser whitish wide hyphae Xalapa xm wide yellow yellowish