The American Steel Worker: A Twenty-five Years' Experience in the Selection, Annealing, Working, Hardening and Tempering of Various Kinds and Grades of Steel

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Derry-Collard Company, 1903 - Iron and steel workers - 337 pages
 

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Page 145 - There are several forms of expanding mandrels in common use. One form has a sleeve with a taper hole, fitting on a mandrel...
Page 21 - Temper (^ per cent, carbon) is the most suitable temper for tools, where the surface only is required to be hard, and where the capacity to withstand great pressure is of importance, such as stamping or pressing dies, boiler-cups, etc. Both the last two tempers may be easily welded by a mechanic accustomed to weld cast steel...
Page 21 - A very useful temper for circular cutters, very large turning tools, taps, screwing dies, &c. This temper requires considerable care in welding. Chisel Temper (1 per cent. Carbon). — An extremely useful temper, combining, as it does, great toughness in the unhardened state with the capacity of hardening at a low heat It is consequently well adapted for tools when the unhardened part is required to stand the blow of a hammer without snipping, but where a hard cutting edge is required, such as cold...
Page 234 - ... are : first, that it is the natural condition of the stock ; second, the pores are open when heated, and the steel is absorbing carbon. The higher the heat to which the pieces are subjected, the coarser the grain. It is possible to heat machine steel in such a manner as to produce a fine grain — in fact, as fine as that of the nicest tool steel. While the writer would not be understood as advocating the use of machinery steel in the making of nice tools, as so good an article cannot be produced...
Page 87 - Spermaceti oil 48 parts, neat's (6 foot oil 45 parts, rendered beef suet 4 parts, resin 3 parts. They had very good results with this bath until a drummer came along with good cigars and a steel two cents a pound cheaper, and then trouble was the result. By the way, I have visited and known of several shops where a few good cigars or an occasional wine supper, which some glib-tongued salesman was willing to put up for the man who did the buying, caused more trouble than a little in the hardening...
Page 72 - ... bury it in ashes or lime. This is likely to give unsatisfactory results unless the ashes or lime are also heated. This can be accomplished by first heating a large piece of iron and burying in the contents of the annealing box. When the steel to be annealed is sufficiently heated the piece of iron may be removed and the piece to be annealed put in its place and thoroughly buried in order that it may take a long time in cooling ; it should be allowed to remain in the ashes or lime until cold....
Page 97 - The charcoal made from burnt leather is triturated until line enough to pass through the meshes of a No. 45 sieve. The three ingredients are thoroughly mixed and incorporated while in a dry state, and water is then added slowly to prevent lumps until the paste formed has the consistency of ordinary varnish; when ready the paste is applied to the files with a brush, care being taken to have the teeth well filled with the mixture.
Page 21 - Razor temper (1 per cent, carbon). — This steel is so easily burnt by being over-heated that it can only be placed in the hands of a very skilful workman.
Page 96 - The formula here given is taken from the report of the Chief of Ordnance of the United States War Department, and is used when hardening files, and has also given good results when hardening small taps, milling cutters, reamers, broaches, rotary files and similar tools having fine teeth. The following is a copy of the report : "Before hardening, the files are treated with a mixture of salt and carbonaceous materials to protect the teeth from decarbonization and oxidation. The kinds and proportions...
Page 97 - The surplus paste is then wiped from the files by the brush, and the files placed on end before a slow fire to dry. If dried too quickly the paste will crack or blister; if not dried enough the remaining moisture will be transformed into steam when dipped into the heated lead-bath and cause an ebullition or sputtering of the lead, throwing out minute globules of the latter which may endanger the eyes of the operator. The fusion of the paste upon the surface of the file indicates...

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