An introductory commentary reviewing the the debate and nature of the challenges to the Antarctic Treatry System (ATS) signed in Washington, 1959. The challenges crystallised as a result of the signing at Wellington, New Zealand, on 25 Nov. 1988, of the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA) and the signing in Madrid, on 4 Oct. 1991, of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.
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Sources for the Antarctic Treaty
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acceding accordance with Article Advisory Committee Annex Antarctic environment Antarctic Flora Antarctic Marine Living Antarctic mineral resource Antarctic Seals Antarctic Treaty area Antarctic Treaty Consultative Antarctic Treaty System Antarctica application Arbitral Tribunal assessment associated ecosystems Australia Chile claim Commission conservation measures Conservation of Antarctic Contracting Parties Convention applies CRAMRA date of entry dependent and associated deposit designated dispute ensure enter into force environment and dependent Environmental Protection established Executive Secretary functions Government of Australia harvesting Ibid impacts implementation instruments of ratification International Law June killed or captured Madrid Protocol Management Scheme marine living resources measures in effect mineral resource activities modification or amendment notification Operator participate present Treaty procedures pursuant to Article referred regime Regulatory Committee request Ross seal Scientific Committee scientific research signatory Signature South Southern Ocean sovereignty in Antarctica species supra Treaty Consultative Meeting Treaty Consultative Parties United Kingdom United Nations Weddell seal
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