The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Apr 21, 1994 - Mathematics - 316 pages
A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.
 

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Contents

The atmospheric boundary layer
1
12 History
3
13 Observing the ABL
5
15 Applications
6
16 Scope of the book
7
17 Nomenclature and some definitions
8
Notes and bibliography
12
Basic equations for mean and fluctuating quantities
15
Notes and bibliography
143
The thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer
145
62 The stable nocturnal boundary layer
164
63 The marine atmospheric boundary layer
182
64 Mesoscale flow and IBL growth
186
Notes and bibliography
191
The cloudtopped boundary layer
193
71 General properties of the CTBL
194

22 Governing equations for mean and fluctuating quantities
20
23 The simplified mean equations
25
24 The turbulence closure problem
26
25 The secondmoment equations
29
26 Turbulent kinetic energy and stability parameters
32
Notes and bibliography
38
Scaling laws for mean and turbulent quantities
40
the neutral case
42
the nonneutral surface layer
49
34 Generalized ABL similarity theory
60
35 Similarity theory and turbulence statistics
70
Notes and bibliography
82
Surface roughness and local advection
85
42 Scalar roughness lengths
89
43 The vegetation canopy
93
44 Flow over the sea
97
45 Local advection and the internal boundary layer
104
Notes and bibliography
113
Energy fluxes at the land surface
115
52 Radiation fluxes
120
53 Evaporation
125
54 Condensation
139
72 Observations
200
73 Radiation fluxes and cloudtop radiative cooling
207
74 Entrainment and entrainment instability
212
75 Numerical modelling of the CTBL
216
Notes and bibliography
222
Atmospheric boundarylayer modelling and parameterization schemes
224
82 Surface temperature
226
83 Surface humidity soil moisture
229
84 Canopy parameterization
235
85 Surface fluxes
243
86 Rate equation for ABL depth
244
87 Turbulence closure schemes
245
88 ABL cloud parameterization
256
Notes and bibliography
257
The atmospheric boundary layer climate and climate modelling
258
92 Sensitivity of climate to the ABL and to land surface
262
93 Research priorities
267
Notes and bibliography
277
Appendices
279
References
294
Index
311
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