## The Atmospheric Boundary LayerA comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation. |

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### Contents

The atmospheric boundary layer | 1 |

12 History | 3 |

13 Observing the ABL | 5 |

15 Applications | 6 |

16 Scope of the book | 7 |

17 Nomenclature and some definitions | 8 |

Notes and bibliography | 12 |

Basic equations for mean and fluctuating quantities | 15 |

Notes and bibliography | 143 |

The thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer | 145 |

62 The stable nocturnal boundary layer | 164 |

63 The marine atmospheric boundary layer | 182 |

64 Mesoscale flow and IBL growth | 186 |

191 | |

The cloudtopped boundary layer | 193 |

71 General properties of the CTBL | 194 |

22 Governing equations for mean and fluctuating quantities | 20 |

23 The simplified mean equations | 25 |

24 The turbulence closure problem | 26 |

25 The secondmoment equations | 29 |

26 Turbulent kinetic energy and stability parameters | 32 |

Notes and bibliography | 38 |

Scaling laws for mean and turbulent quantities | 40 |

the neutral case | 42 |

the nonneutral surface layer | 49 |

34 Generalized ABL similarity theory | 60 |

35 Similarity theory and turbulence statistics | 70 |

Notes and bibliography | 82 |

Surface roughness and local advection | 85 |

42 Scalar roughness lengths | 89 |

43 The vegetation canopy | 93 |

44 Flow over the sea | 97 |

45 Local advection and the internal boundary layer | 104 |

Notes and bibliography | 113 |

Energy fluxes at the land surface | 115 |

52 Radiation fluxes | 120 |

53 Evaporation | 125 |

54 Condensation | 139 |

72 Observations | 200 |

73 Radiation fluxes and cloudtop radiative cooling | 207 |

74 Entrainment and entrainment instability | 212 |

75 Numerical modelling of the CTBL | 216 |

Notes and bibliography | 222 |

Atmospheric boundarylayer modelling and parameterization schemes | 224 |

82 Surface temperature | 226 |

83 Surface humidity soil moisture | 229 |

84 Canopy parameterization | 235 |

85 Surface fluxes | 243 |

86 Rate equation for ABL depth | 244 |

87 Turbulence closure schemes | 245 |

88 ABL cloud parameterization | 256 |

257 | |

The atmospheric boundary layer climate and climate modelling | 258 |

92 Sensitivity of climate to the ABL and to land surface | 262 |

93 Research priorities | 267 |

277 | |

Appendices | 279 |

294 | |

311 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

aerodynamic applied approach approximately assumed atmosphere average becomes boundary layer buoyancy calculated canopy changes Chapter climate closure cloud cloud top coefficient components constant convective cooling curve defined dependence depth described determined differences diffusivity discussed drag effects energy entrainment equation evaluated evaporation example flow follows function given gives heat flux height horizontal humidity important increases inversion land length mean measurements mixed moisture nature neutral normalized Note numerical observations occurs parameter parameterization particular presence pressure problem properties quantities radiation radiative radiative cooling range reference region relative represents resistance roughness scale schemes shown similarity simulations soil solution stability stress structure studies surface Table temperature tend theory thermal transfer turbulent unstable usually values vapour variation vegetation velocity vertical wind written zero