The Beginnings of Accounting and Accounting Thought: Accounting Practice in the Middle East (8000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.) and Accounting Thought in India (300 B.C. and the Middle Ages)
This text is divided into two distinct sections. Based on archaeological, historical and accounting research, the first part deals with the emergence of accounting practice. The 10,000 year-oldhistory of accounting is traced back to the Sumerian token accounting and token-envelope accounting (the latter of the 4th millennium BC.). Small clay tokens inside a clay envelope stood for individual assets while the impressions of those tokens on the surface of the envelope represented the totality of the corresponding equity. From this arose (in the 3rd millennium BC.) the crucial innovaton of proto-cuneiform bookkeeping that led to abstract counting and writing on clay tablets. The book also illustrates the astounding sophistication manifested in some of the accounting and budgeting procedures of the time. The second part examines the first known manuscript that contains descriptions of accounting activities: this is Kautilya's "Arthasastra", written about 300 BC in India. A little known work in Western accounting, it contains sections describing various accounting, budgeting and taxation aspects.
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction
On Recent Archeological Evidence of the MiddleEast from 8000 BC to 3000 BC
Recent Archeological Evidence Revising Our View on the Evolution of Early Record Keeping
CHAPTER 4 Archeology of Accounting and SchmandtBesserats Contribution
Successor to Token Accounting and FollowUp to Recent Insights into Mesopotamian Accounting of the 3rd Millennium BC
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3rd millennium abstract counting accounting aspects Accounting Historians accounting notions accounting systems ancient archaeology archaic bookkeeping archeological assets barig barley equivalents Besserat Bhattacharyya Brahmagupta budgeted century clay envelopes clay tablets clay tokens commodity complex tokens contains correspondence counter-entries credit side crucial cuneiform writing debit debt claims debtor Denise double entry Double Entry Bookkeeping double-entry system duality economic equity evidence Fertile Crescent ﬁrst holding gains hollow clay hypothesis incised income India input interpretation Kangle Kautilya labor language later liters mathematicians mathematics Mattessich Mesopotamian Accounting Middle East modern accounting negative numbers Nissen origin of writing output paper period pertinent Peters and Emery physical pictographs proﬁt proto-cuneiform reality record keeping refers relations representation represented reveal Schmandt Schmandt-Besserat sealed signs social speciﬁc Sumerian surface symbols theory tion token accounting token shape token system token-envelope accounting transactions transfer translation Uruk Wittgenstein York