The Caspian Sea Encyclopedia
Springer Science & Business Media, May 26, 2010 - Science - 525 pages
“The Caspian Sea Encyclopedia” is the second one in the new series of encyclo- dias about the seas of the former Soviet Union published by Springer-Verlag. The ?rst volume – “The Aral Sea Encyclopedia” was published by Springer in 2009. The series will be continued by “The Black Sea Encyclopedia” in 2010. Today the Caspian Sea is known to readers thanks to its oil and gas resources, sturgeon and caviar, signi?cant sea-level variations, socio-economic and political problems. The Caucasus and Central Asia (http://eurodialogue. org/?les/fckeditor_?les/Caspian-s- map2. png) vii viii Introduction For more than 250 years the Caspian Sea was shared by two states: Russia (the Soviet Union) and Persia (Iran). After the disintegration of the USSR in 1992, the new independent states of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have radically changed the political and economic situation in the region. In addition to Russia and Iran, who had determined the situation on the Caspian for a long period, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan are now interested parties, beginning a new stage in the historical development of the Caspian region. This increase in the number of the Caspian legal entities from two to ?ve has given rise to a whole tangle of geopolitical, economic, international legal, ethnic and environmental problems, each of which demands its own approach and settlement mechanism.
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Academy of Sciences Aktau ancient Apsheron Peninsula Asia Astrakhan Astrakhan Region Atyrau Azerbaijan Republic Baku bank basin border canal Caspian Region Caspian Sea Caspian Sea level Caucasus caviar century Cheleken Circum-Caspian Lowland coast coastal Company construction Cossack Daghestan deposits depth Derbent drilling east eastern established expedition fish fishery flow industry Iran Iranian Island Kalmyk Kazakh Kazakhstan Khazar km long Krasnovodsk Kyzylagach lakes land length located lower reaches Makhachkala Mangyshlak marine Middle Caspian million tons Moscow mountain navigation Nobel North Caspian Northern Caspian oil production oilfields Persian Petersburg plant population port Province railway runoff Russian Federation salinity salt sand seabed settlement ships shore solonchaks southern Soviet spawning species Spit stellate sturgeon steppes temperature Terek Terek River territory thou km2 transport Treaty Turkmen Turkmenbashi Turkmenistan Ural River USSR vessels Volga delta Volga River water area water body western width winds winter world’s zone