The Challenge of Scientometrics: The Development, Measurement, and Self-organization of Scientific Communications

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Universal-Publishers, 2001 - Computers - 344 pages
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Scientometrics--the quantitative study of scientific communication--challenges science and technology studies by demonstrating that organized knowledge production and control is amenable to measurement. First, the various dimensions of the empirical study of the sciences are clarified in a methodological analysis of theoretical traditions, including the sociology of scientific knowledge and neo-conventionalism in the philosophy of science. Second, the author argues why the mathematical theory of communication enables us to address crucial problems in science and technology studies, both on the qualitative side (e.g., the significance of a reconstruction) and on the quantitative side (e.g., the prediction of indicators). A comprehensive set of probabilistic entropy measures for studying complex developments in networks is elaborated. In the third part of the study, applications to S&T policy questions (e.g., the emergence of a European R&D system), to problems of (Bayesian) knowledge representations, and to the study of the sciences in terms of 'self-organizing' paradigms of scientific communication are provided. A discussion of directions for further research concludes the study.
 

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Contents

843 Critical revisions in the sectional dimensions
151
85 Towards the generation of expert systems from scientific texts
155
The Static and Dynamic Analysis of Network Data
159
91 Citing and cited as variables in a static design
162
92 Cluster analysis
163
922 Divisive clustering
166
923 Confirmational usage
172
93 Graphs and cliques
173

221 The delineation of the unit of analysis
22
222 Whitleys 1984 solution
24
23 Discourse analysis
27
24 The sociology of translation
28
25 Networks of actors Networks of words
31
26 Conclusions
33
The Intellectual Organization of the Sciences
37
31 Knowledge and language in the neoconventionalist tradition
39
32 The epistemological priority of scientific methods
40
33 Scientific method as a function of scientific discourse
43
34 The social sciences
44
35 From disciplinary axiomata to organized sciences
47
351 Multi inter and transdisciplinarity
49
352 The analytical character of dimensions
51
36 Conclusions
52
The Methodological Priority of Textual Data
57
42 Texts and cooccurrences of words
59
421 Levels of aggregation in scientific texts
61
422 Units of analysis
65
43 Full text analysis of a single document in terms of words
68
431 Word structures at different levels of aggregation
73
432 The attribution of sentences to sections
78
44 Conclusions
82
Full Text Analysis of Scientific Articles
85
51 Sample choice
87
52 Processing
93
54 Conclusions
97
55 Consequences for building artificial intelligence using lexicon
98
From Words and CoWords to Information and Probabilistic Entropy
101
62 Theories and methods in science studies
103
63 Methodological requirements in science studies
104
64 Summary and Conclusions
108
METHODOLOGICAL STUDIES USING INFORMATION THEORY
110
The Static Model
111
72 Sample choice
114
73 Results
115
732 Dimensions of the transmission
116
74 Generalization for three dimensions
120
75 The aggregation problem
124
76 Which words?
127
77 Conclusions
129
Modeling the Dynamics of Scientific Developments
131
81 Methods
132
82 Changes in distributions of word occurrences among texts
135
83 The problem of emergence
140
84 Publications as events in the field of Dictyostelium discoideum
143
841 Normalization in terms of an a posteriori event
144
842 Normalization across texts
146
94 The dynamic analysis
178
942 The dynamics of relations among the thirteen journals
180
95 Revision of the prediction
184
96 Forecasting
185
97 Summary and conclusions
190
98 Relevance for social network analysis
191
Irreversibilities in Science and Technology Networks
195
101 Methodology
196
102 Markov chains and the problem of emergence
206
103 Conclusions
210
104 Applications
212
1042 Coevolution models and innovation studies
215
1043 Implications for firm behaviour and institutional agency
220
COMMUNICATION PROBABILISTIC ENTROPY AND SELFORGANIZATION
225
The Impact of EC Policies on the Transnational Publication System
229
111 The measurement of publication performance
230
112 Distributions and systems
237
1121 Does the EC develop as a single publication system?
239
1122 Between memberstate coauthorships
242
1123 Extension to the period 19881991
244
113 From whether? towards when? and why?
245
114 Has a system of coauthorship relations emerged?
248
115 Conclusions and discussion
249
Knowledge Representations Bayesian Inferences and Empirical Science Studies
253
122 Application to social network analysis
255
123 An empirical example in scientometrics
258
124 Bayesian reasoning
262
1242 The use of the Bayesian theorem in artificial intelligence
264
1243 The decomposition of the a posteriori state in terms of the a priori one The QuineDuhem Thesis
266
1244 The evidencing of the evidence
269
125 Expert systems in science and science studies
270
1251 The frame problem
271
1252 Genesis and validity
273
The Possibility of a Mathematical Sociology of Scientific Communications
277
131 Uncertainty information and sociological meaning
278
132 The recursivity of communication
282
133 The empirical delineation of communication systems
285
134 The hypothetical status of communication systems
288
135 Methodological and theoretical conclusions
292
1352 Theoretical conclusions
294
136 Relevance for the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge
300
137 Relevance for the Sociology of Translation and Coword Analysis
306
138 The further challenge of Scientometrics
310
List of original publications
314
Bibliography
316
Author Index
335
Subject Index
338
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About the author (2001)

Leydesdorff is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Science and Technology Dynamics, University of Amsterdam.

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