The Civil War and the Limits of Destruction

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Harvard University Press, 2007 - History - 277 pages
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The Civil War is often portrayed as the most brutal war in America's history, a premonition of twentieth-century slaughter and carnage. In challenging this view, Mark E. Neely, Jr., considers the war's destructiveness in a comparative context, revealing the sense of limits that guided the conduct of American soldiers and statesmen.

Neely begins by contrasting Civil War behavior with U.S. soldiers' experiences in the Mexican War of 1846. He examines Price's Raid in Missouri for evidence of deterioration in the restraints imposed by the customs of war; and in a brilliant analysis of Philip Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley campaign, he shows that the actions of U.S. cavalrymen were selective and controlled. The Mexican war of the 1860s between French imperial forces and republicans provided a new yardstick for brutality: Emperor Maximilian's infamous Black Decree threatened captured enemies with execution. Civil War battles, however, paled in comparison with the unrestrained warfare waged against the Plains Indians. Racial beliefs, Neely shows, were a major determinant of wartime behavior.

Destructive rhetoric was rampant in the congressional debate over the resolution to avenge the treatment of Union captives at Andersonville by deliberately starving and freezing to death Confederate prisoners of war. Nevertheless, to gauge the events of the war by the ferocity of its language of political hatred is a mistake, Neely argues. The modern overemphasis on violence in Civil War literature has led many scholars to go too far in drawing close analogies with the twentieth century's "total war" and the grim guerrilla struggles of Vietnam.

 

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The Civil War and the limits of destruction

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Pulitzer Prize winner Neely (history, Pennsylvania State Univ.; The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties) has written a scholarly but readable study of what is often described as ... Read full review

Contents

THE MEXICANAMERICAN WAR Republicanism and the Ethos of War
6
PRICES RAID Limited War in Missouri
41
EMPEROR MAXIMILIANS BLACK DECREE War in the Tropics
72
THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY Sheridan and Scorched Earth
109
THE SAND CREEK MASSACRE The Grand Burning of the Prairie
140
AVENGING ANDERSONVILLE Retaliation and the Political Uses of Hatred
170
The Cult of Violence in Civil War History
198
Notes
221
Selected Bibliography
253
Acknowledgments
267
Illustration Sources
269
Index
271
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About the author (2007)

Mark E. Neely, Jr., is McCabe-Greer Professor of the History of the Civil War Era, Pennsylvania State University , and the author of a number of books, including his Pulitzer prize-winning The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties.

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